Europa (muin)

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Europa
Europa-moon.jpg
Europa's trailin hemisphere in approximate naitural colour. The prominent crater in the lawer richt is Pwyll an the darker regions are auries whaur Europa's primarily watter ice surface haes a heicher mineral content. Imaged on 7 September 1996 bi Galileo spacecraft.
Discovery
Discovered bi Galileo Galilei
Simon Marius
Discovery date 8 Januar 1610[1]
Designations
Alternative names Jupiter II
Adjective Europan
Orbital characteristics[3]
Epoch 8 January 2004
Periapsis 664862 km[lower-alpha 1]
Apoapsis 676938 km[lower-alpha 2]
Mean orbit radius 670900 km[2]
Eccentricity 0.009[2]
Orbital period 3.551181 d[2]
Average orbital speed 13.740 km/s[2]
Inclination 0.470° (tae Jupiter's equator)
1.791° (tae the ecliptic)[2]
Satellite o Jupiter
Pheesical characteristics
Mean radius 1560.8±0.5 km (0.245 Yirds)[4]
Surface aurie 3.09×107 km2 (0.061 Yirds)[lower-alpha 6]
Vollum 1.593×1010 km3 (0.015 Yirds)[lower-alpha 3]
Mass (4.799844±0.000013)×1022 kg (0.008 Yirds)[4]
Mean density 3.013±0.005 g/cm3[4]
Equatorial surface gravity 1.314 m/s2 (0.134 g)[lower-alpha 4]
Escape velocity 2.025 km/s[lower-alpha 5]
Rotation period Synchronous[5]
Axial tilt 0.1°[6]
Albedo 0.67 ± 0.03[4]
Surface temp. min mean max
Surface ≈ 50 K[7] 102 K (−171.15°C) 125 K
Apparent magnitude 5.29 (opposeetion)[4]
Atmosphere
Surface pressur 0.1 µPa (10−12 bar)[8]

Europa (Jupiter II), is the saxt-closest muin o Jupiter, an the smawest o its fower Galilean satellites, an the saxt-lairgest muin in the Solar Seestem.

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Periapsis is derived from the semimajor axis (a) and eccentricity (e): a(1−e).
  2. Apoapsis is derived from the semimajor axis (a) and eccentricity (e): a(1+e).
  3. Volume derived frae the radius (r): 4/3πr 3
  4. Surface gravity derived frae the mass (m), the gravitational constant (G) and the radius (r): Gm/r 2
  5. Escape velocity derived frae the mass (m), the gravitational constant (G) and the radius (r):
  6. Surface aurie derived frae the radius (r): 4πr 2

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Blue, Jennifer (9 November 2009). "Planet and Satellite Names and Discoverers". USGS. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 "Overview of Europa Facts". NASA. Retrieved 27 December 2007. 
  3. "JPL HORIZONS solar system data and ephemeris computation service". Solar System Dynamics. NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 10 August 2007. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Yeomans, Donald K. (13 Julie 2006). "Planetary Satellite Physical Parameters". JPL Solar System Dynamics. Retrieved 5 November 2007. 
  5. Geissler, P. E.; Greenberg, R.; Hoppa, G.; Helfenstein, P.; McEwen, A.; Pappalardo, R.; Tufts, R.; Ockert-Bell, M.; Sullivan, R.; Greeley, R.; Belton, M. J. S.; Denk, T.; Clark, B. E.; Burns, J.; Veverka, J.; Hoppa, G.; Helfenstein, P.; McEwen, A.; Pappalardo, R.; Tufts, R.; Ockert-Bell, M.; Sullivan, R.; Greeley, R.; Belton, M. J. S.; Denk, T.; Clark, B. E.; Burns, J.; Veverka, J. (1998). "Evidence for non-synchronous rotation of Europa". Nature. 391 (6665): 368–70. Bibcode:1998Natur.391..368G. PMID 9450751. doi:10.1038/34869. 
  6. Bills, Bruce G. (2005). "Free and forced obliquities of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter". Icarus. 175 (1): 233–247. Bibcode:2005Icar..175..233B. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2004.10.028. 
  7. McFadden, Lucy-Ann; Weissman, Paul; Johnson, Torrence (2007). The Encyclopedia of the Solar System. Elsevier. p. 432. ISBN 0-12-226805-9. 
  8. McGrath (2009). "Atmosphere of Europa". In Pappalardo, Robert T.; McKinnon, William B.; Khurana, Krishan K. Europa. University of Arizona Press. ISBN 0-8165-2844-6.