Ethiopian Naitional Defence Force

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Ethiopian Naitional Defence Force
Ethiopian National Defense Force
Flag of Ethiopia.svg
Service branchesEthiopian Airmy
Ethiopian Air Force
Ethiopian Navy (1955–96)
Leadership
Commander-in-ChiefPrime Meenister Abiy Ahmed Ali
Meenister of DefenseAisha Mohammed Musa
Chief of General StaffGeneral Se'are Mekonnen
Manpower
Militar age16-49 years auld
Available for
militar service
38,794,315, age 16–49 (2015)
Fit for
militar service
24,757,344, age 16–49 (2015)
Reachin militar
age annually
1,949,125 (2015)
Active personnel182,500 (2015)[1]
Reserve personnel0
Expenditures
Budget$330 million[2]
Percent o GDP0.8% (2015 est.)
Relatit airticles
HistoryAbyssinian–Adal war
Breetish Expedition tae Abyssinia
Ethiopian–Egyptian War
Mahdist War
First Italo-Ethiopian War
Seicont Italo-Ethiopian War
World War II
Korean War
Unitit Naitions Operation in the Congo
Eritrean War o Unthirldom
1964 Ethiopian-Somali Border War
Ogaden War
1982 Ethiopian–Somali Border War
Ethiopian Ceevil War
Eritrean–Ethiopian War
War in Somalie (2006–09)
2007–08 Ethiopian crackdown in Ogaden
RanksMilitar ranks of Ethiopie

The Ethiopian Naitional Defence Force (ENDF) (Inglis: Ethiopian National Defense Force) is the militar of Ethiopie. Ceevil direction of the militar is carried out through the Meenistry of Defence, which oversees the grund forces, air force, as well as the Defence Industry Sector. The current defence meeister is Motuma Mekassa.[3]

The size of the ENDF haes fluctuatit significantly since the end of the Ethiopie-Eritrea war in 2000. In 2002 the Ethiopian Defence Forces haed a strength of approximately 400,000 troops.[4] This wis roughly the same number maintainit during the Derg regime that fell tae the rebel forces in 1991. Houaniver, that number wis later reducit, and in January 2007, during the War in Somalie, Ethiopian forces were said tae comprise about 300,000 troops.[5] In 2012, the IISS estimatit that the grund forces haed 135,000 personnel and the air force 3,000.[6]

As of 2012, the ENDF conseests of twa separate branches: the Grund Forces and the Ethiopian Air Force.[6] Ethiopie haes several defence industrial organisations that produce and overhaul different wappens seestems. Maist of these were biggit unner the Derg regime which planned a lairge meelitary industrial complex. The ENDF relies on voluntary meelitary service of people above 18 years of age. Although there is nae compulsory meelitary service, airmed forces mey conduct call-ups when necessary and compliance is compulsory.[7]

Being a landlocked kintra, Ethiopie today haes nae navy. Ethiopie reacquired a coastline on the Reid Sea in 1950 and creautit the Ethiopian Navy in 1955. Eritrea's unthirldom in 1991 left Ethiopie landlocked again, but the Ethiopian Navy continued tae operate frae foreign ports until it finally wis disbandit in 1996.

Histerie o the Airmy[eedit | eedit soorce]

Template:Refimprove section The Ethiopian airmy's oreegins and meelitary tradeetions date back tae the earliest histerie o Ethiopie. Due tae Ethiopie's location between the Middle East and Africa, it haes long been in the middle of Eastren and Wastren politics, and haes been subject tae foreign invasion and aggression. In 1579, the Ottoman Empire's attempt tae expand frae a coastal base at Massawa wis defeatit.[citation needit] The Airmy of the Ethiopian Empire wis also able tae defeat the Egyptians in 1868 at Gura, led by Ethiopian Emperor Yohannes IV.[citation needit] Clapham wrote in the 1980s that the "Abyssinians [haed suffered] frae a 'superiority complex' which mey be traced tae Gundet, Gura and Adwa".[8]

In accordance with the order of the emperor of Ethiopie, Directly Nikolay Leontiev organised the first battalion of the regular Ethiopian airmy in February 1899. Leontiev formed the first regular battalion, the kernel of which became the company of volunteers frae the umwhile Senegal shooters, which he chose and invitit from Western Africa, with training of the Roushie and French officers. The first Ethiopian meelitary orchestra wis organized at the same time.[9][10]

Battle of Adwa[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Battle of Adowa is the best known victory of Ethiopian forces ower invaders. It maintained Ethiopie's existence as an independent state. Fought on 1 Mairch 1896 against the Kinrick of Italy near the town of Adwa, it wis the decisive battle of the First Italo–Ethiopian War. Assistit bi all of the major nobles of Ethiopia including, Alula Abanega, Negus, Tekle Haymanot of Gojjam, Sebhat Aregawi, Ras Makonnen, Ras Mengesha Yohannes, and Ras Mikael of Wollo, Emperor Menelek II of Ethiopia struck a powerful blow against the Italians.

The Ethiopian airmy haed been able tae execute the strategic plan of Menelik's heidquarters, despite a feudal seestem of organizstion and adverse circumstances. A special role wis played by the Roushie meelitary advisers and the volunteers of Leontiev's mission.[11][12][13] The first problem wis the qualeety of its airms, as the Italian and Breetish colonial authoreeties were able tae sabotage the transportation of 60,000 to 100,000 modern Berdan rifles frae Roushie intae landlocked Ethiopie.[14]

Secicontlie, the Ethiopian airmy wis based on a feudal seestem of organization, and as a result, nearly the entire airmy wis a peasant militia. Roushie meelitary experts advising Menelik II suggestit trying tae achieve full battle collision with Italians, tae neutralize the superior firepower of thair opponent and potentially nullify thair problems with airms, training, and organisation, rather than engaging in a campaign of harassment.[15] In the battle that ensued wave upon wave of Menelik's warriors successfully attacked the Italians.

Boondary confrontation against the Breetish colonialists 1896–1899[eedit | eedit soorce]

After the successful colonial capture of the Sudan, Kenyae and Uganda, the Breetish expansion against Ethiopie became a real danger, which diminished anelie efter the stairt of the Seicont Boer War in 1899. The Ethiopian airmy became mair effective against Breeitish colonial forces. The numerous expeditions of Ethiopian forces stopped colonial expansion. As the Roushie Alexander Bulatovich, one of the Roushie meelitary advisers and a pairticipant in the expedition of the legendary airmy of Ras Wolde Giyorgis, wrote:

"Mony consider the Abyssinian airmy tae be undisciplined. Thay think that it is nae in ony condeetion tae withstand a serious fecht with a well-organized European airmy, claiming that the recent war with Italy doesn't prove onything. I will nae begin tae guess the future, and will say anelie this. Ower the course of four months, I watched this airmy closely. It is unique in the warld. And I can bear witness tae the fact that it is nae quite so chaotic as it seems at first glance, and that on the contrary, it is profoundly disciplinit, though in its own unique way. For every Abyssinian, war is normal business, and meelitary skills and rules of airmy life in the field enter in the flesh and bluid of each of them, juist as do the main principles of tactics. On the mairch, each soldier knows how tae arrange necessary comforts for himself and tae conserve his strength; but on the other hand, when necessary, he shows such endurance and is caipable of action in condeetions which are difficult even tae imagine.

You see remarkable expediency in all the actions and skills of this airmy; and each soldier haes an amazingly intelligent attitude toward managing the mission of the battle.

Despite such qual33ties, because of its impetuousness, it is much more difficult tae control this airmy than a well-drilled European army, and I can anelie marvel at and admire the skill of its leaders and chiefs, of which thare is nae shortage."[15]

In obedience tae the agreement with Roushie and the order of Menelik II, First Ethiopian officers began tae be trained at the First Roushie cadet schuil in 1901. 30 to 40 Ethiopian officers were trained in Roushie frae 1901 until 1913.

Unner Haile Selassie I[eedit | eedit soorce]

Ethiopian troops transporting supplies by camel through vegetation during the East African Campaign.

Modernisation of the airmy tuik place unner the regency of Tafari Mekonnen, who later reigned as Emperor Haile Selassie I. He created an Imperial Bodyguard, the Kebur Zabagna, in 1917 frae the earlier Mahal Safari who haed tradeetionally attendit the Ethiopian Emperor. Its elite were trained at the French meelitary academy at Saint-Cyr or by Belgian meelitary advisers. He awso created his own meelitary schuil at Holeta in January 1935.[16]

Ethiopian meelitary aviation efforts were initiatit in 1929, when Tafari Mekonnen hired twa French pilots and purchased four French biplanes.[17] By the time of the Italian invasion of 1935, the air force haed four pilots and thirteen aircraft.

Houaniver, these efforts were naw sufficient nor instituitit in enough time tae stop the rising tide of Italian fascism. Ethiopie lost its unthirldom in the Italian invasion of Ethiopie of 1935-36, marked for the first time Ethiopie wis colonized by a foreign power. The kintra regained its unthirldom efter the 1941 East African Campaign of World War II with the intervention of forces frae the Breetish Commonweel o Naitions. Efter the Italians haed been driven fraw the Kintra, a Breetish Meelitary Mission tae Ethiopia, unner Major General Stephen Butler, wis established tae reorganise the Ethiopian Airmy.[18] The Anglo-Ethiopian Agreement of 1944 remuived the BMME frae the jurisdiction of East Africa Command at Nairobi and made it responsible tae the Ethiopian Meenister of War.[19]

Ethiopi] bought twenty AH-IV tankettes frae Swaden in the late 1940s. Thay arrived in Djibouti on 9 May 1950 efter which thay were carried by rail tae Addis Ababa. They were uised until the 1980s when thay pairticipatit in the fighting against Somalie.[20]

Korean War[eedit | eedit soorce]

Ethiopian soldiers in the Korean War, 1951

In keeping with the principle of collective security, for which Haile Selassie wis an outspoken proponent, Ethiopie sent a contingent unner General Mulugeta Buli, known as the Kagnew Battalion, tae take pairt in the Korean War. It wis attached tae the American 7th Infantry Diversion, and fought in a nummer of engagements including the Battle of Pork Chop Hill.[21] 3,518 Ethiopian troops served in the war, where 121 were killed and 536 wounded during the Korean War.[22]

On Mey 22, 1953, a U.S.-Ethiopian Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement wis signed. A U.S. Meelitary Assistance Advisory Group wis dispatched tae Ethiopie, and bygane its work by reorganising the airmy intae three divisions. On 25 September 1953, Selassie creautit the Imperial Meenistry of Naitional Defence that unified the Airmy, Air Force, and Navy.[23] The First, Second, and Third Divisions were established with their heidquarters at Addis Ababa, Asmara, and Harar, respectively.[24] By 1956, the three diveesions haed a total of 16,832 troops. In May 1959, he established the Imperial Territorial Airmy as a reserve force that provided meelitary training tae ceevil servants.

In 1960 the U.S. Airmy Area Handbook for Ethiopie describit the very personalised command arrangements then uised by the Emperor:[25]

The Emperor is by consteetutional provision Commander-in-Chief, and tae him are reserved all rights respecting the size of the forces and their organisation and command, together with the power tae appoint, promote, transfer and dismiss meelitary officers. He seeks the advice and consent of Pairliament in declaring war. Tradeetionally, he assumes personal command of the forces in time of war.'

The Office of the Chief of Staff of the Imperial Ethiopian Airmed Forces directed the Commanders of the Airmy, Air Force, and Navy, and the three airmy diveesions were directly responsible tae the Commander of the Airmy.[26] The three divisions seemingly includit the Third Deevision in the Ogaden, seen as a hardship post.[27] While technically the Imperial Bodygaird (Kebur Zabagna) wis responsible tae the Airmy Commander, in realeety its commander received his orders directly frae the Emperor.

Balambaras Abebe Aregai wis one of the noted patriotic resistance leaders of Shoa (central Ethiopie) that rose tae preeminence in the post-liberation period.[28] He became Ras, a general and meenister of defence of the Imperial Ethiopian Airmed Forces until his daith in the 1960 Ethiopian coup attempt.

Ethiopie contributed troops for the Unitit Naitions operation in the Congo – the Unitit Naitions Operation in the Congo - frae July 1960. By 20 July 1960, 3,500 troops for ONUC haed arrived in the Congo.[29] The 3,500 conseestit of 460 troops frae Ethiopie (later tae grow intae the Tekil Brigade)[30] as well as troops frae Ghana, Morocco and Tunisie. Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie raised some 3,000 Imperial Bodyguard personnel- about 10 percent of the Ethiopian airmy’s entire strength at that time-and made it pairt of the UN peacekeeping force in the Congo, along with an air force squadron.[31] This volunteer battalion frae the Imperial Bodyguard were authorized by the Emperor. The Tekil (or “Tekel”) Brigade wis stationed in Stanleyville.

Aman Mikael Andom commandit the Third Diveesion during the Ogaden War of 1964. He later became chief of staff of the Airmed Forces in July 1974, and then Meenister of Defense.[32] He then became chairman of the Derg from September to December 1974.

Emperor Haile Selassie dividit the Ethiopian meelitary into separate commands. The US Airmy Handbook for Ethiopie notes that each service wis providit with training and equipped frae different foreign kintras "tae assure reliability and retention of power."[33] The meelitary conseestit of the following: Imperial Bodygaird (an aa known as the "First Diviseeon", 8,000 men); three airmy diveesions; services which includit the Airborne, Engineers, and Signal Corps; the Territorial Airmy (5,000 men); and the police (28,000 men).[33]

Among reportit U.S. equipment deliveries tae Ethiopie were 120 M59 and 39 M75 airmoured personnel carriers.

By July 1975 the International Institute for Strategic Studies wis listing a mechanised diveesion in addition tae three infantry diveesions,(IISS 75-76, p. 42) and it appears that there were five diveesions active by the time of the 1977 Ogaden War. With significant Soviet assistance, efter that point force sizes grew rapidly.

Seizure of power by the Derg 1974 and eftermath[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Coordinating Committee of the Airmed Forces, Polis, and Territorial Aiirmy, or the Derg (Amharic "Committee"), wis officially announced 28 June 1974 by a group of meelitary officers tae maintain law and order due tae the powerlessness of the ceevilian government following widespread mutiny in the airmed forces of Ethiopie earlier that year. Its members were nae directly involved in those mutinies, nor wis this the first military committee organized tae support the admeenistration of Prime Meenister Endelkachew Makonnen: Alem Zewde Tessema haed established the Airmed Forces Coordinati6 Committee 23 March. However, over the following months radicals in the Ethiopian meelitary came tae believe he was acting on behauf of the hatit aristocracy, and when a group of notables petitioned for the release of a number of government meenisters and offeecials who were unner arrest for corruption and ither crimes, three days later the Derg wis announced.[34]

The Derg, which oreeginally conseestit of soldiers at the caipital, broadened its membership by including representatives from the 40 units of the Ethiopian Airmy, Air Force, Navy, Kebur Zabagna (Imperial Guard), Territorial Army and Police: each unit wis expectit tae send three representatives, who were supposed tae be privates, NCOs and junior officers up tae the rank of major. According tae Bahru Zewde, "senior officers were deemed too compromised by close association tae the regime."[35]

The committee electit Major Mengistu Haile Mariam as its chairman and Major Atnafu Abate as its vice-chairman. The Derg wis initially supposit tae study the grievances of various meelitary units, and investigate abuises by senior officers and staff, and tae root out corruption in the meelitary. In the months following its foonding, the power of the Derg steadily increased. In July 1974 the Derg obtained key concessions from the Emperor, Haile Selassie, which included the power tae arrest nae only meelitary officers, but government officials at every level. Soon baith umwhile Prime Meenisters Tsehafi Taezaz Aklilu Habte-Wold, and Endelkachew Makonnen, along with maist of their cabinets, maist regional governors, many senior meelitary officers and officials of the Imperial court foond themselves imprisoned.

When the Derg gained control of Ethiopie, they lessened their reliance on the Wast. Instead they bygane tae draw their equipment and their sources for organisational and training methods from the Soviet Union and other Comecon kintras, especially Cuba. During this period, Ethiopian forces were often locked in counter-insurgency campaigns against various guerrilla groups. They honed both conventional and guerrilla tactics during campaigns in Eritrea, and the Ethiopian Ceevil War that toppled Ethiopian umwhile meelitary dictator Mengistu Haile Mariam in 1991 and awso by repelling an invasion launched by Somalie in the 1977–1978 Ogaden War.[36]

The Ethiopian airmy grew conseederably unner the Derg (1974–1987), and the Fowk's Democratic Republic o Ethiopie unner Mengistu (1987–1991), especially during the latter regime. Gebru Tareke describes the organization of the Ethiopian meelitary in early 1990, a year before Mengistu fled the country:

Ethiopian grund forces comprised four revolutionary airmies organized as task forces, eleven corps, twenty-four infantry diversions, and four moontain diveesions, reinforced by five mechanised diveesions, two airborne diveesions, and ninety-five brigades, including four mechanised brigades, three artillery brigades, four tank brigades, twelve special commando and paracommando brigades – including the Spartakiad, which became operational in 1987 unner the preparation and guidance of North Koreans – seven BM-rocket battalions, and ten brigades of paramerlitary forces.[37]

Estimated forces under airms increased dramatically:[38]

  • 1974: 41,000 (Ethiopian Revolution)
  • 1977: 53,500 (Ogaden War)
  • 1979: 65,000
  • 1991: 230,000 (overthrow of Mengistu)

Cuba providit a significant influx of meelitary advisors and troops ower this period, with the lairgest escalation during the Ogaden War with Somalie, supportit by a Soviet airlift:[39]

  • 1977–1978: 17,000 (Ogaden War)
  • 1978: 12,000
  • 1984: 3,000
  • 1989: All forces withdrawn

1991 Order of Battle[eedit | eedit soorce]

By 1991, the Ethiopian airmy under the Mengistu govrenment haed grown in size, but the regime wis overcome by the Ethiopian Fowk's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), Fowk's Front for Democracy and Juistice (PFDJ, former EPLF), Oromo Liberation Front (OLF) and other opposition factions during a decades-long ceevil war. Mengistu's Fowk's Militia haed awso grown tae about 200,000 members. The mechanized forces of the airmy comprised 1,200 T-54/55, 100 T-62 tanks, and 1,100 airmoured personnel carriers (APCs), but readiness wis estimatit tae be anelie about 30 percent operational, because of the withdrawal of financial support, lack of maintenance expertise and pairts frae the Soviet Union, Cuba and ither naitions.[38]

Ethiopian T-62 tanks at the end of the Ethiopian Ceevil War.

The airmy commands conseestit of the following:

  • First Revolutionary Airmy (heidquartered at Harar)
  • Second Revolutionary Airmy (heidquartered at Asmera)
  • Third Revolutionary Army (heidquartered at Kombolcha)
  • Fourth Revolutionary Army (heidquartered at Nekemte)
  • Fifth Revolutionary Army (heidquartered at Gondar)

Tae these airmies were assigned the operational forces of the airmy, comprising:

Frae 1991[eedit | eedit soorce]

Efter the defeat of the militar govrennment in 1991, the provisional govrrnment disbanded the umwhile naitional airmy and relied on its own guerrilla fighters for naitional security.[40] In 1993, houaniver, the Tigrayan-led government announced plans tae creaut a multi-ethnic defence force. This process entailit the creaution of a new professional airmy and officer class and the demobilization of mony of the irregulars who haed fought against the meelitary govrenment. With the collapse of the Soviet Union Ethiopie again turned tae the Wastrenn powers for alliance and assistance. Houaniver, mont Tigrayan officers remained in command positions. This transformation wis still unnerway when war with Eritrea broke out in 1998, a development that saw the ranks of the airmed forces swell along with defence expenditures.

Although the airmed forces haeve significant battlefield experience, their militia orientation haes complicatit the transition tae a structured, integratit meelitary.[40] Ranks and conventional units were anelie adoptit in 1996. A Unitit States-assistit effort tae restructure the airmed forces wis interruptit by mobilisation for the war with Eritrea.

The Ethiopie-Eritrea war[eedit | eedit soorce]

Soldier of Ethiopian Naitional Defence Force, 2006.

The umhwile allies EPRDF and PFDJ (former EPLF) led their kintras Ethiopie and Eritrea, respectively, intae the Eritrean-Ethiopian War of 1998. The war wis fought over the disputit region of Badme. During the course of the war, some commanders and pilots frae the umwhile airmy and air force were recalled tae duty. These officers helped turn the tide decisively against Eritrea in 2000. Following the war's end, the Eritrea-Ethiopie Boundary Commission, a body foondit by the UN, established that the Badme region haed in fact belonged tae Eritrea.[41] Although the two kintras are now at peace, Ethiopie rejected the results of the internaitional court's decision, and continued tae occupy Badme. Maist observers agree that Ethiopia's rejection of internaitional law, coupled with the heich numbers of soldiers maintainit on the border by each side – a debilitatingly heich number, pairticularly for the Eritrean side – means that the two countries are effectively still in conflict.[citation needit]

Efter the September 11 attacks in 2001, the Ethiopian airmy began tae train with the U.S. Combined Joint Task Force - Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) established in Djibouti. Ethiopie allowed the US tae station meelitary advisors at Camp Hurso.[42] Pairt of the training at Camp Hurso has includit U.S. Airmy elements, including 4th Battalion, 31st Infantry, training the 12th, 13th and 14th Diveesion Reconnaissance Companies, which from July 2003 were being furmed intae a new Ethiopian anti-terrorism battalion.[43]

Somalie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Ethiopian troops helpit drive the Islamic Courts Union out of Mogadishu in Somalie. In December 2006, the ENDF entered Somalie tae confront the Islamic Courts Union, initially winning the Battle of Baidoa. This led tae the seizure of Mogadishu by Ethiopian troops and TFG militias, and subsequent heivy fighting there. Efter the Islamists split intae two groups, moderate Islamists led by Sheikh Ahmed signed a UN backed peace deal with the TFG and established a lairger government in Mogadishu. Ethiopian troops withdrew as pairt of the terms of the peace deal. Govrenment forces haeve been engaged in battle against Ogaden insurgents led by the Ogaden Naitional Liberation Front.

Gabre Heard commanded the forces in Somalie. As of 2014, the Ethiopian troops in Somalie are being integratit intae the AMISOM peacekeeping force. According to Ethiopian Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokesperson Ambassador Dina Mufti, the Ethiopian military's decision to join AMISOM is intendit tae render the peacekeeping operation more secure.[44] Analysts awso suggestit that the muive wis primarily motivatit by financial considerations, with the Ethiopian forces' operational costs now slated to be under AMISOM's allowance budget. It is believed that the Ethiopian meelitary's long experience in Somali territory, its equipment such as helicopters, and the potential for closer coordination will help the allied forces advance their territorial gains.[45]

Peacekeeping[eedit | eedit soorce]

Ethiopia haes served in various Unitit Naitions and African Union peacekeeping missions. These haeve includit Ivory Coast,[46][47] on the Burundi border,[46][48] and in Rwanda.

Two major Ethiopian missions are in Liberie and Darfur. The Unitit Naitions Mission in Liberie (UNMIL) was established by Unitit Naitions Security Council Resolution 1509, of 19 September 2003, tae support the implementation of the ceasefire agreement and the peace process, protect Unitit Naitions staff, facileeties and ceevilians, support humanitarian and human richts activeeyies; as well as assist in nautional security reform, including naitional police training and formation of a new, restructurit meelitary.[49] In November 2007, nearly 1,800 Ethiopian troops serving with the Unitit Naitions Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) were presentit with UN Peacekeeping medals for thqir "invaluable contribution tae the peace process."[50] Up ta3 three Ethiopian battalions uised to constitute Sector 4 of the UN Mission, covering the soothren pairt of the kintra.

Mony thousands of Ethiopian peacekeepers are involvit in the joint African Union/Unitit Naitions Hybrid operation in Darfur, wastren Sudan. The Security Cooncil authorized a UNAMID force of about 26,000 uniformed personnel.[51][52]

Ethiopie awso provides the entire force for the UN's Abyei mission, the Unitit Naitions Interim Security Force for Abyei. An Ethiopian officer commands the force.

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

 This article incorporates public domain material frae wabsteids or documents of the Library of Congress Country Studies.

  1. "Ethiopia Military Strength". Retrieved 21 July 2015. 
  2. "Ethiopia: Small Defense Budget, Mighty Military". Retrieved 21 July 2015. 
  3. http://moinfo.gov.et/English/publication.php?Main_Page_Number=2541&Doc_Type=English[deid airtin]
  4. "Ethiopia Armed Forces". Nations Encyclopedia. 
  5. "Ethiopian army eager to learn from U.S. soldiers". Stars and Stripes. 2007-01-07. Archived frae the oreeginal on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-01-14. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 IISS Military Balance 2012, 434-5.
  7. "The World Factbook". Retrieved 27 October 2014. 
  8. Clapham, Christopher 1987. Transformation and Continuity in Revolutionary Ethiopie. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Crabites, Pierre.
  9. "Count Leontiev is spy or adventurer..." Retrieved 27 October 2014. 
  10. "Nikolay Stepanovich Leontiev". Словари и энциклопедии на Академике. Retrieved 27 October 2014. 
  11. RUSSIAN MISSION TO ABYSSINIA.
  12. Who Was Count Abai?.
  13. Сергей Васильевич Куприенко. "The activities of the officer the Kuban Cossack army N.S. Leontjev in the Italian-Ethiopic war in 1895–1896". Научная Конференция, Симпозиум, Конгресс на Проекте SWorld – Апробация, Сборник научных трудов и Монография – Россия, Украина, Казахстан, СНГ. Retrieved 27 October 2014. 
  14. [1][deid airtin] Leonid Artamonov, a Roushie general, geographer and traveler, meelitary adviser of Menelik II, as one of Roushie officers of volunteers attached tae the forces of Ras Tessema (wrote: Through Ethiopia to the White Nile).
  15. 15.0 15.1 "- WITH THE ARMIES OF MENELIK II by Alexander K. Bulatovich". Archived frae the oreeginal on 14 April 2014. Retrieved 27 October 2014. 
  16. Ethiopia Military Tradition in National Life Library of Congress
  17. Library of Congress Country Study, 1991
  18. Ayele, 2014, 7.
  19. Spencer, Ethiopia at Bay, 2006, 148. Heids of the Breetish Meelitary Mission to Ethiopia were 1941-1943: Major General Stephen Seymour BUTLER, C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O., Reserve of Officers (b. 1880 – d. 1964); April 1943 – 1949: Major General Algernon Edward COTTAM, O.B.E., M.C. (b. 1893 – d. 1964).
  20. Kliment, Charles K.; Francev, Vladimír (1997). Czechoslovak Armored Fighting Vehicles. Atglen, PA: Schiffer. ISBN 0-7643-0141-1, 134.
  21. As described at the Ethiopian Korean War Veterans website.
  22. "U.S. Forces/Allies in the Korean War: Factsheet". United States Army. Archived frae the oreeginal on July 16, 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-15. 
  23. David Hamilton Shinn, Thomas P. Ofcansky, 'Historical Dictionary of Ethiopia,' illustrated, Scarecrow Press, 2004, ISBN 0810849100, 40.
  24. Ayele, 'The Ethiopian Army,' 2014, 10.
  25. George Lipsky, U.S. Army Area Handbook for Ethiopia, American University (Washington, D.C.), Washington [Dept. of the Army] for sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Govt. Print. Office, 1964, 2d ed., 608.
  26. Lipsky, 1964, 608-9.
  27. Shinn, Ofcansky, 2004, 280.
  28. Solomon Addis Getahun, Ethiopia in the New Millennium: Issues of Democratic Governance Archived 2016-03-05 at the Wayback Machine., accessed July 2012.
  29. United Nations (1960). "QUESTIONS RELATING TO THE SITUATION IN THE REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO (LEOPOLDVILLE)" (PDF). United Nations. United Nations. Retrieved 2016-12-29.  Initial reports on the deployment of troops appear to be S/4389 (18 July 1960), S/4417 (c. 23 July 1960), S/4475 (August 1960), and S/4482.
  30. http://ethiopiansoldiers.com/the-congo-crisis/
  31. http://ethioembassyuganda.org/democratic-republic-of-congo-unveils-its-keenness-to-strengthen-its-wide-ranging-relations-with-ethiopia/[deid airtin]
  32. Shinn, Ofcansky, 2004, 26.
  33. 33.0 33.1 Cited in Marina and David Ottaway, Ethiopia: Empire in Revolution (New York: Africana, 1978), p. 45.
  34. Marina and David Ottaway, Ethiopia: Empire in Revolution (New York: Africana, 1978), p. 52
  35. Bahru Zewde, 2000, p. 234
  36. See Gebru Tareke, The Ethiopia-Somalia War of 1977 Revisited, The International Journal of African Historical Studies, Vol. 33, No. 3 (2000), pp. 635-667.
  37. Gebru Tareke, The Ethiopian Revolution: War in the Horn of Africa (New Haven: Yale University, 2009), p. 120
  38. 38.0 38.1 Ethiopia: Army Library of Congress Country Studies
  39. Ethiopia: Cuba Library of Congress Country Studies
  40. 40.0 40.1 Library of Congress Federal Research Division, Country Profile: Ethiopia, April 2005, accessed July 2012
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References and further reading[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Fantahun Ayele, "The Ethiopian Army: from Victory to Collapse 1977-91,' Evanston, Northwestern University Press, 2014
  • George Lipsky, U.S. Army Area Handbook for Ethiopia, American University, Washington DC, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 1964, Second Edition.

Sources on defense in Ethiopia include Jeffrey Isima, Report on the current position with regard to the security sector in Ethiopia, 2003; SSR in Ethiopia, A Prerequisite for Democracy; a note indicating British supported SSDAT/DfID/FCO/MOD defense transformation in Ethiopia in Bendix and Stanley 2008; and Adejumobi and Binega, Budgeting for the Military Sector in Africa, Ch. 3; Nathan 2007 on DDR Commission.

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]