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Erbium,  68Er
General properties
Name, seembol erbium, Er
Appearance sillery white
Pronunciation /ˈɜːrbiəm/ UR-bee-əm
Erbium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline yird metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline yird metal)
Aluminium (post-transeetion metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline yird metal)
Scandium (transeetion metal)
Titanium (transeetion metal)
Vanadium (transeetion metal)
Chromium (transeetion metal)
Manganese (transeetion metal)
Airn (transeetion metal)
Cobalt (transeetion metal)
Nickel (transeetion metal)
Capper (transeetion metal)
Zinc (transeetion metal)
Gallium (post-transeetion metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline yird metal)
Yttrium (transeetion metal)
Zirconium (transeetion metal)
Niobium (transeetion metal)
Molybdenum (transeetion metal)
Technetium (transeetion metal)
Ruthenium (transeetion metal)
Rhodium (transeetion metal)
Palladium (transeetion metal)
Siller (transeetion metal)
Cadmium (transeetion metal)
Indium (post-transeetion metal)
Tin (post-transeetion metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline yird metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transeetion metal)
Tantalum (transeetion metal)
Tungsten (transeetion metal)
Rhenium (transeetion metal)
Osmium (transeetion metal)
Iridium (transeetion metal)
Platinum (transeetion metal)
Gold (transeetion metal)
Mercur (transeetion metal)
Thallium (post-transeetion metal)
Leid (post-transeetion metal)
Bismuth (post-transeetion metal)
Polonium (post-transeetion metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline yird metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transeetion metal)
Dubnium (transeetion metal)
Seaborgium (transeetion metal)
Bohrium (transeetion metal)
Hassium (transeetion metal)
Meitnerium (unkent chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unkent chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unkent chemical properties)
Copernicium (transeetion metal)
Ununtrium (unkent chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transeetion metal)
Ununpentium (unkent chemical properties)
Livermorium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unkent chemical properties)


Atomic nummer (Z) 68
Group, block group n/a, f-block
Period period 6
Element category   lanthanide
Staundart atomic wicht (Ar) 167.259
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f12 6s2
per shell
2, 8, 18, 30, 8, 2
Pheesical properties
Phase solid
Meltin pynt 1802 K ​(1529 °C, ​2784 °F)
Bylin pynt 3141 K ​(2868 °C, ​5194 °F)
Density near r.t. 9.066 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 8.86 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 19.90 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation 280 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 28.12 J/(mol·K)
vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1504 1663 (1885) (2163) (2552) (3132)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states

3, 2, 1

(basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.24
Atomic radius empirical: 176 pm
Covalent radius 189±6 pm
Creestal structur hexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structur for erbium
Speed o soond thin rod 2830 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion (r.t.) (poly) 12.2 µm/(m·K)
Thermal conductivity 14.5 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity (r.t.) (poly) 0.860 µ Ω·m
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic at 300 K
Young's modulus 69.9 GPa
Shear modulus 28.3 GPa
Bouk modulus 44.4 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.237
Vickers haurdness 589 MPa
Brinell haurdness 814 MPa
CAS Nummer 7440-52-0
Diskivery Carl Gustaf Mosander (1842)
Maist stable isotopes o erbium
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
160Er syn 28.58 h ε 0.330 160Ho
162Er 0.139% >1.4×1014 y (α) 1.6460 158Dy
(β+β+) 1.8445 162Dy
164Er 1.601% - (α) 1.3041 160Dy
(β+β+) 0.0241 164Dy
165Er syn 10.36 h ε 0.376 165Ho
166Er 33.503% - (α) 0.8309 162Dy
167Er 22.869% - (α) 0.6657 163Dy
168Er 26.978% - (α) 0.5527 164Dy
169Er syn 9.4 d β 0.351 169Tm
170Er 14.910% >3.2×1017 y (α) 0.0502 166Dy
(ββ) 0.6536 170Yb
171Er syn 7.516 o β 1.490 171Tm
172Er syn 49.3 o β 0.891 172Tm
Decay modes in parentheses are predictit, but hae nae yet been observed
· references

Erbium is a chemical element in the lanthanide series, wi the seembol Er an atomic nummmer 68. A sillery-white solit metal when airtificially isolatit, naitural erbium is always foond in chemical combination wi ither elements on Yird. As sic, it is a rare yird element which is associated wi several ither rare elements in the mineral gadolinite frae Ytterby in Swaden.

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