Erbium

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Erbium,  68Er
Erbium-crop.jpg
General properties
Appearance sillery white
Staundart atomic wecht (Ar, staundart) 167.259(3)
Erbium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
-

Er

Fm
holmiumerbiumthulium
Atomic nummer (Z) 68
Group group n/a
Period period 6
Element category   lanthanide
Block f-block
Electron confeeguration [Xe] 4f12 6s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 30, 8, 2
Pheesical properties
Phase (at STP) solit
Meltin pynt 1802 K ​(1529 °C, ​2784 °F)
Bylin pynt 3141 K ​(2868 °C, ​5194 °F)
Density (near r.t.) 9.066 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.) 8.86 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 19.90 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation 280 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 28.12 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1504 1663 (1885) (2163) (2552) (3132)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states

3, 2, 1

(basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.24
Atomic radius empirical: 176 pm
Covalent radius 189±6 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Miscellanea
Creestal structurhexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed creestal structur for erbium
Speed o soond thin rod 2830 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion (r.t.) (poly) 12.2 µm/(m·K)
Thermal conductivity 14.5 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity (r.t.) (poly) 0.860 µ Ω·m
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic at 300 K
Young's modulus 69.9 GPa
Shear modulus 28.3 GPa
Bouk modulus 44.4 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.237
Vickers haurdness 589 MPa
Brinell haurdness 814 MPa
CAS Nummer 7440-52-0
History
Diskivery Carl Gustaf Mosander (1842)
Main isotopes o erbium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
160Er syn 28.58 h ε 160Ho
162Er 0.139% >1.4×1014 y (α) 158Dy
(β+β+) 162Dy
164Er 1.601% - (α) 160Dy
(β+β+) 164Dy
165Er syn 10.36 h ε 165Ho
166Er 33.503% - (α) 162Dy
167Er 22.869% - (α) 163Dy
168Er 26.978% - (α) 164Dy
169Er syn 9.4 d β 169Tm
170Er 14.910% >3.2×1017 y (α) 166Dy
(ββ) 170Yb
171Er syn 7.516 o β 171Tm
172Er syn 49.3 o β 172Tm
Decay modes in parentheses are predictit, but hae nae yet been observed
| references | in Wikidata

Erbium is a chemical element in the lanthanide series, wi the seembol Er an atomic nummmer 68. A sillery-white solit metal when airtificially isolatit, naitural erbium is always foond in chemical combination wi ither elements on Yird. As sic, it is a rare yird element which is associated wi several ither rare elements in the mineral gadolinite frae Ytterby in Swaden.

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