Endorphins

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Endorphins (contractit frae "endogenous morphine"[note 1]) are endogenous opioid neuropeptides an peptide hormones in humans an ither ainimals.

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. In addeetion tae endorphins, chemically authentic morphine is an aw produced endogenously in humans an ither ainimals.[1][2]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Stefano GB, Ptáček R, Kuželová H, Kream RM (1515). "Endogenous morphine: up-to-date review 2011" (PDF). Folia Biologica. 58 (2): 49–56. PMID 22578954. Positive evolutionary pressure has apparently preserved the ability to synthesize chemically authentic morphine, albeit in homeopathic concentrations, throughout animal phyla. ... The apparently serendipitous finding of an opiate alkaloid-sensitive, opioid peptide-insensitive, µ3 opiate receptor subtype expressed by invertebrate immunocytes, human blood monocytes, macrophage cell lines, and human blood granulocytes provided compelling validating evidence for an autonomous role of endogenous morphine as a biologically important cellular signalling molecule (Stefano et al., 1993; Cruciani et al., 1994; Stefano and Scharrer, 1994; Makman et al., 1995). ... Human white blood cells have the ability to make and release morphine 
  2. "μ receptor". IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. 15 March 2017. Retrieved 28 December 2017. Comments: β-Endorphin is the highest potency endogenous ligand ... Morphine occurs endogenously [117].