Diogenes shelterin in his barrel
as pentit bi John William Waterhouse
|Born||c. 412 BC|
|Died||323 BC (aged about 89)|
|Schuil||Greek philosophy, Cynicism|
Diogenes (Greek: Διογένης, Diogenēs [di.oɡénɛ͜ɛs]) wis a Greek filosofer an ane o the foonders o Cynic filosofie. He wis born in Sinope, an Ionian colony on the Black Sea, in 412 or 404 BC an dee'd at Corinth in 323 BC.
Diogenes wis a controversial feegur. His faither mintit cunyies for a leevin, an Diogenes wis bainished frae Sinope whan he teuk tae debasement o siller. Efter bein exiled, he muived tae Athens an creeticised mony cultural conventions o the ceety. He modelled himsel on the ensaumple o Heracles, an believed that virtue wis better revealed in action nor in theory. He uised his semple lifestyle an behaviour tae creeticise the social vailyies an institutions o whit he saw as a corrupt, confuised society. He haed a reputation for sleepin an eatin whauriver he chuise in a heichly non-tradeetional fashion, an teuk tae teuchenin himsel against naitur. He declared himsel a cosmopolitan an a ceetizen o the warld raither nor claimin allegiance tae juist ane place. Thare are mony tales aboot his doggin Antisthenes' fitsteps an acomin his "faithfu hoond".
Diogenes made a virtue o puirtith . He begged for a leevin an eften sleepit in a lairge ceramic jar in the mercatplace. He becam notorious for his filosofical stunts, sic as cairyin a lamp in the day, claimin tae be leukin for an honest man. He creeticised Plato, disputit his interpretation o Socrates, an sabotaged his lecturs, whiles distractin listeners bi bringin fuid an eatin in the discussions. Diogenes wis an aw notit for haein mockit Alexander the Great, baith in public an tae his face whan he veesitit Corinth in 336 BC.
Diogenes wis capturt bi pirates an sauld intae sclavery, eventually settlin in Corinth. Thare he passed his filosofie o Cynicism tae Crates, that taucht it tae Zeno o Citium, that fashioned it intae the schuil o Stoicism, ane o the maist endurin schuils o Greek filosofie. Na writins o Diogenes' are kent but thare are some details o his life frae anecdotes (chreia), especially frae Diogenes Laërtius' beuk Leeves an Opeenions o Eminent Filosofers an some ither soorces.
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Diogenes of Sinope "The Zen of Disengagement: Diogene of Sinope". Voice in the Wilderness. Archived frae the oreeginal on 2015-10-17.
- Laërtius & Hicks 1925, Ⅵ:79, Plutarch, Moralia, 717c. says that he died on the same day as Alexander the Great, which puts his death at 323 BC. Diogenes Laërtius's statement that Diogenes dee'd "nearly 90" wad pit his year o birth at 412 BC. But Censorinus (De die natali, 15.2) says that he dee'd at age 81, that pits his year o birth at 404 BC. The Suda puts his birth at the time o the Thirty Tyrants, that an aw gies 404 BC.
- Diogenes Laërtius, vi. 6, 18, 21; Dio Chrysostom, Orations, viii. 1–4; Aelian, x. 16; Stobaeus, Florilegium, 13.19
- The oreeginal Greek wird descrivin Diogenes' "jar" is pithos, a lairge jar for storin wine, grain, or olive ile. Modren variations include baurel, tub, vat, wine-vat, an kennel. Desmond, William (2008). Cynics. University of California Press. p. 21. ISBN 9780520258358. Archived frae the oreeginal on 2017-04-29. Retrieved 2016-02-23.
- Laërtius & Hicks 1925, Ⅵ:32; Plutarch, Alexander, 14, On Exile, 15.
- Plutarch, Alexander 14
- John M. Dillon (2004). Morality and Custom in Ancient Greece. Indiana University Press. pp. 187–88. ISBN 978-0-253-34526-4.
- Diogenes of Sinope "The Basics of Philosophy". Archived frae the oreeginal on 2012-05-05. Retrieved 2012-04-06. Retrieved November 13, 2011.