Cocaine

Frae Wikipedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Cocaine
Kokain - Cocaine.svg
Cocaine-from-xtal-1983-3D-balls.png
Clinical data
Tred namesPsicaine, Delcaine, Ensan Cocaine
AHFS/Drugs.comMicromedex Detailed Consumer Information
Pregnancy
category
  • US: C (Risk nae ruled oot)
Dependence
liability
Pheesical: none[1]
Psychological: Heich[2]
Addiction
liability
High[3]
Routes o
admeenistration
Topical, oral, insufflation, intravenous
Drog clessCNS stimulant
Local anesthetic
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
BioavailabilityBi mooth: 33%[4]
insufflatit: 60[5]–80%[6]
nasal spray: 25[7]–43%[4]
Metabolismliver CYP3A4
Onset o actionseiconts tae meenits[8]
Biological hauf-life1 oor
Duration o action5 tae 90 meenits[8]
ExcretionKidney
Identifiers
SynonymsBenzoylmethylecgonine, coke
CAS Nummer
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
PDB ligand
ECHA InfoCard100.000.030
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC17H21NO4
Molar mass303.353 g/mol
3D model (Jmol)
Meltin pynt98 °C (208 °F)
Bylin pynt187 °C (369 °F)
Solubility in watter~1.8 mg/mL (20 °C)
 NYesY (whit is this?)  (verify)

Cocaine, an aa kent as coke, is a strang stimulant maistly uised as a recreautional drog.[9]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 15: Reinforcement and Addictive Disorders". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. p. 367. ISBN 9780071481274. While physical dependence and withdrawal occur with some drugs of abuse (opiates, ethanol), these phenomena are not useful in the diagnosis of addiction because they do not occur with other drugs of abuse (cocaine, amphetamine) and can occur with many drugs that are not abused (propranolol, clonidine). 
  2. Hamid Ghodse (2010). Ghodse's Drugs and Addictive Behaviour: A Guide to Treatment (4 ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 91. ISBN 9781139485678. 
  3. Introduction to Pharmacology Third Edition. Abingdon: CRC Press. 2007. pp. 222–223. ISBN 9781420047424. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Fattinger K, Benowitz NL, Jones RT, Verotta D (2000). "Nasal mucosal versus gastrointestinal absorption of nasally administered cocaine". Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 56 (4): 305–10. doi:10.1007/s002280000147. PMID 10954344. 
  5. Barnett G, Hawks R, Resnick R (1981). "Cocaine pharmacokinetics in humans". J Ethnopharmacol. 3 (2–3): 353–66. doi:10.1016/0378-8741(81)90063-5. PMID 7242115. 
  6. Jeffcoat AR, Perez-Reyes M, Hill JM, Sadler BM, Cook CE (1989). "Cocaine disposition in humans after intravenous injection, nasal insufflation (snorting), or smoking". Drug Metab. Dispos. 17 (2): 153–9. PMID 2565204. 
  7. Wilkinson P, Van Dyke C, Jatlow P, Barash P, Byck R (1980). "Intranasal and oral cocaine kinetics". Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 27 (3): 386–94. doi:10.1038/clpt.1980.52. PMID 7357795. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 Zimmerman JL (October 2012). "Cocaine intoxication". Critical Care Clinics. 28 (4): 517–26. doi:10.1016/j.ccc.2012.07.003. PMID 22998988. 
  9. Pomara, C; Cassano, T; D'Errico, S; Bello, S; Romano, AD; Riezzo, I; Serviddio, G (2012). "Data available on the extent of cocaine use and dependence: biochemistry, pharmacologic effects and global burden of disease of cocaine abusers". Current medicinal chemistry. 19 (33): 5647–57. doi:10.2174/092986712803988811. PMID 22856655.