Chloroform

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Chloroform
Chloroform displayed.svg
Chloroform 3D.svg
Chloroform in its liquid state shawn in a test tube
Names
Preferred IUPAC name
Trichloromethane
Ither names
Chloroform[1]
Methane trichloride
Methyl trichloride
Methenyl trichloride
TCM
Freon 20
Refrigerant-20
R-20
UN 1888
Identifiers
Jmol-3D images Image
ChEBI CHEBI:35255 YesY
ChEMBL ChEMBL44618 YesY
ChemSpider 5977 YesY
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.603
EC Nummer 200-663-8
KEGG C13827 YesY
RTECS nummer FS9100000
UNII 7V31YC746X YesY
Properties
CHCl3
Molar mass 119.37 g·mol−1
Appearance Colourless liquid
Odour Hivy, ethereal odour
Density 1.564 g/cm3 (−20 °C)
1.489 g/cm3 (25 °C)
1.394 g/cm3 (60 °C)
Meltin pynt −63.5 °C (−82.3 °F; 209.7 K)
Bylin pynt 61.15 °C (142.07 °F; 334.30 K)
decomposes at 450 °C
1.062 g/100 mL (0 °C)
0.809 g/100 mL (20 °C)
0.732 g/100 mL (60 °C)
Solubility Soluble in benzene
Miscible in diethyl ether, oils, ligroin, alcohol, CCl4, CS2
Solubility in acetone ≥ 10 g/100 mL (19 °C)
Solubility in dimethyl sulfoxide ≥ 10 g/100 mL (19 °C)
Vapour pressur 0.62 kPa (−40 °C)
7.89 kPa (0 °C)
25.9 kPa (25 °C)
313 kPa (100 °C)
2.26 MPa (200 °C)
kH 3.67 L·atm/mol (24 °C)
Acidity (pKa) 15.7 (20 °C)
λmax 250 nm, 260 nm, 280 nm
Magnetic susceptibility -59.30·10−6 cm3/mol
Thermal conductivity 0.13 W/m·K (20 °C)
Refractive index (nD) 1.4459 (20 °C)
Viscosity 0.563 cP (20 °C)
Structur
Molecular shape Tetrahedral
Dipole moment 1.15 D
Thermochemistry
Speceefic heat capacity, C 114.25 J/mol·K
Staundart molar
entropy
So298
202.9 J/mol·K
Std enthalpy o
formation
ΔfHo298
-134.3 kJ/mol
-71.1 kJ/mol
Std enthalpy o
combustion
ΔcHo298
473.21 kJ/mol
Pharmacology
N01AB02 (WHO)
Hazards
Main hazards carcinogen[2]
GHS pictograms The exclamation-mark pictogram in the Globally Harmonized Seestem o Classification an Labellin of Chemicals (GHS)The health hazard pictogram in the Globally Harmonized Seestem o Classification an Labellin of Chemicals (GHS)
GHS signal wird Warning
GHS hazard statements H302, H315, H319, H332, H336, H351, H361, H373
GHS precautionary statements P261, P281, P305+351+338
EU clessification Harmful Xn Irritant Xi
Carc. Cat. 2B
R-phrases R22, R38, R40, R48/20/22
S-phrases (S2), S36/37
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will nae burn. E.g., watter Health code 2: Intense or continued but nae chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g., chloroform Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even unner fire exposur condeetions, an is nae reactive wi watter. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash pynt Non-flammable
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
1250 mg/kg (rattons, oral)
9617 ppm (ratton, 4 or)[3]
20,000 ppm (guinea pig, 2 or)
7056 ppm (cat, 4 hr)
25,000 ppm (human, 5 min)[3]
US health exposure limits (NIOSH):
50 ppm (240 mg/m3)[2]
Ca ST 2 ppm (9.78 mg/m3) [60-minute][2]
500 ppm[2]
Except whaur itherwise notit, data are gien for materials in thair staundart state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compoond wi formula CHCl3. It is a colourless, sweet-smellin, dense liquid that is produced on a lairge scale as a precursor tae PTFE. It is an aa a precursor tae various refrigerants, .[4] It is ane o the fower chloromethanes an a trihalomethane.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry : IUPAC Recommendations and Preferred Names 2013 (Blue Book). Cambridge: The Royal Society of Chemistry. 2014. p. 661. doi:10.1039/9781849733069-FP001. ISBN 978-0-85404-182-4. The retained names ‘bromoform’ for HCBr3, ‘chloroform’ for HCCl3, and ‘iodoform’ for HCI3 are acceptable in general nomenclature. Preferred IUPAC names are substitutive names. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 NIOSH Pocket Guide tae Chemical Hazards 0127
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Chloroform". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 
  4. Rossberg, M. (2005), "Chlorinated Hydrocarbons", Ullmann's Encyclopedia o Industrial Chemistry, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, doi:10.1002/14356007.a06_233.pub2