Central processin unit

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An Intel 80486DX2 CPU, as seen frae abuin.
An Intel 80486DX2, as seen frae below

A central processin unit (CPU) (umwhile an aa referred tae as a central processor unit[1]) is the haurdware within a computer that cairies oot the instructions o a computer program bi performin the basic arithmetical, logical, an input/ootput operations o the seestem. The computer industrie haes used the term "central processin unit" at least syne the early 1960s.[2] Tradeetionally, the term "CPU" refers tae a processor, mair specifically tae its processin unit an control unit (CU), distinguishin thir core elements o a computer frae freemit components sic as main memory an I/O circuitry.[3]

The form, design, an implementation o CPUs hae cheenged ower the course o thair history, but thair fundamental operation remeens awmaist unchynged. Principal components o a CPU include the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) that performs arithmetic an logic operations, processor registers that supplee operands tae the ALU an store the results o ALU operations an a control unit that orchestrates the fetchin (frae memory) an execution o instructions bi directin the coordinatit operations o the ALU, registers an ither components.

Maist modren CPUs are microprocessors, meanin thay are conteened on a single integrated circuit (IC) chip. An IC that conteens a CPU mey an aa conteen memory, peripheral interfaces, an ither components o a computer; sic integratit devices are variously cried microcontrollers or systems on a chip (SoC). Some computers employ a multi-core processor, that is a single chip conteenin twa or mair CPUs cried "cores"; in that context, ane can speak o sic single chips as "sockets".[4]

Array processors or vector processors hae multiple processors that operate in parallel, wi na unit conseedert central. Thare an aa exists the concept o virtual CPUs that are an abstraction o dynamical aggregatit computational resoorces.[5]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Envos Corporation (September 1988). "1. INTRODUCTION". 1108 USER'S GUIDE (PDF) (Manual). Envos Corporation. p. 1. Retrieved Mey 24, 2012. 
  2. Weik, Martin H. (1961). "A Third Survey of Domestic Electronic Digital Computing Systems". Ballistic Research Laboratory. 
  3. Kuck, David (1978). Computers and Computations, Vol 1. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 12. ISBN 0471027162. 
  4. Thomas Willhalm; Roman Dementiev; Patrick Fay (December 18, 2014). "Intel Performance Counter Monitor – A better way to measure CPU utilization". software.intel.com. Retrieved Februar 17, 2015. 
  5. Liebowitz, Kusek, Spies, Matt, Christopher, Rynardt (2014). VMware vSphere Performance: Designing CPU, Memory, Storage, and Networking for Performance-Intensive Workloads. Wiley. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-118-00819-5.