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Cellulose, a linear polymer o D-glucose units (twa are shawn) airtit bi β(1→4)-glycosidic bonds.
Three-dimensional structure of cellulose.
ChEMBL ChEMBL1201676 N
ChemSpider  YesY
ECHA InfoCard 100.029.692
E nummer E460 (thickeners, ...)
Appearance white pouder
Density 1.5 g/cm3
Meltin pynt decomposes
Std enthalpy o
−963 kJ mol−1
Std enthalpy o
−2828 kJ mol−1
NFPA 704
Flammability code 1: Must be pre-heatit afore igneetion can occur. Flash pynt ower 93 °C (200 °F). E.g., canola ile Health code 1: Exposur would cause irritation but anly minor residual injury. E.g., turpentine Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even unner fire exposur condeetions, an is nae reactive wi watter. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
US health exposure limits (NIOSH):
TWA 15 mg/m3 (total) TWA 5 mg/m3 (resp)[2]
Relatit compoonds
Except whaur itherwise notit, data are gien for materials in thair staundart state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
YesY verify (whit is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Cellulose is an organic compoond wi the formula (C
, a polysaccharide consistin o a linear chain o several hundrit tae mony thoosands o β(1→4) airtit D-glucose units.[3][4] Cellulose is an important structural component o the primar cell waw o green plants, miny forms o algae an the oomycetes. Some species o bacteria secrete it tae form biofilms.[5] Cellulose is the maist abundant organic polymer on Yird.[6] The cellulose content o cotton feebre is 90%, that o wid is 40–50%, an that o dried hemp is approximately 57%.[7][8][9]

Cellulose is mainly uised tae produce paperbuird an paper. Smawer quantities are convertit intae a wide variety o derivative products sic as cellophane an rayon. Conversion o cellulose frae energy craps intae biofuels sic as cellulosic ethanol is unner investigation as an alternative fuel soorce. Cellulose for industrial uise is mainly obtained frae wid pulp an cotton.[6]

Some ainimals, pairteecularly ruminants an termites, can digest cellulose wi the help o symbiotic micro-organisms that leeve in thair guts, sic as Trichonympha. In human nutreetion, cellulose is a non-digeestible constituent o insoluble dietar feebre, actin as a hydrophilic boukin augent for faeces an potentially aidin in defecation.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Nishiyama, Yoshiharu; Langan, Paul; Chanzy, Henri (2002). "Crystal Structure and Hydrogen-Bonding System in Cellulose Iβ from Synchrotron X-ray and Neutron Fiber Diffraction". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124 (31): 9074–82. doi:10.1021/ja0257319. PMID 12149011. 
  2. NIOSH Pocket Guide tae Chemical Hazards 0110
  3. Crawford, R. L. (1981). Lignin biodegradation and transformation. New York: John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0-471-05743-6. 
  4. Updegraff DM (1969). "Semimicro determination of cellulose in biological materials". Analytical Biochemistry. 32 (3): 420–424. doi:10.1016/S0003-2697(69)80009-6. PMID 5361396. 
  5. Romeo, Tony (2008). Bacterial biofilms. Berlin: Springer. pp. 258–263. ISBN 978-3-540-75418-3. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Klemm, Dieter; Heublein, Brigitte; Fink, Hans-Peter; Bohn, Andreas (2005). "Cellulose: Fascinating Biopolymer and Sustainable Raw Material". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 44 (22): 3358–93. doi:10.1002/anie.200460587. PMID 15861454. 
  7. Cellulose. (2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 11, 2008, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  8. Chemical Composition of Wood. ipst.gatech.edu.
  9. Piotrowski, Stephan and Carus, Michael (May 2011) Multi-criteria evaluation of lignocellulosic niche crops for use in biorefinery processes. nova-Institut GmbH, Hürth, Germany.