Cell (biology)

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Ingan (Allium) cells in different phases o the cell cycle, drawn bi E. B. Wilson, 1900
A eukaryotic cell (left) an a prokaryotic cell (richt)
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Anatomical terminology

The cell (frae Laitin cella, meanin "smaa ruim"[1]) is the basic structural, functional an biological unit o aw kent leevin organisms. A cell is the smawest unit o life that can replicate independently, an cells are eften cried the "biggin blocks o life". The study o cells is cried cell biology.

Cells consist o cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane, that contains mony biomolecules sic as proteins an nucleic acids.[2] Organisms can be clessified as unicellular (consistin o a single cell; includin bacteria) or multicellular (includin plants an ainimals).[3] While the nummer o cells in plants an ainimals varies frae species tae species, humans conteen mair nor 10 trillion (1013) cells.[4] Maist plant an ainimal cells are veesible anerly unner a microscope, wi dimensions atween 1 an 100 micrometres.[5]

The cell wis diskivert bi Robert Hooke in 1665, that named the biological units for thair resemblance tae cells inhabitit bi Christian monks in a monastery.[6][7] Cell theory, first developed in 1839 bi Matthias Jakob Schleiden an Theodor Schwann, states that aw organisms are componed o ane or mair cells, that cells are the fundamental unit o structur an function in aw leevin organisms, that aw cells come frae preexistin cells, an that aw cells conteen the hereditary information necessar for regulatin cell functions an for transmittin information tae the next generation o cells.[8]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Cell". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 31 December 2012. 
  2. Cell Movements and the Shaping of the Vertebrate Body in Chaipter 21 o Molecular Biology of the Cell fowert edeetion, eeditit bi Bruce Alberts (2002) published bi Garland Science.
    The Alberts text discusses hou the "cellular buildin blocks" muive tae shape developin embryos. It is an aa common tae descrive smaw molecules sic as amino acids as "molecular building blocks".
  3.  This article incorporates public domain material frae the NCBI document "What Is a Cell?" (retrieved on 3 May 2013). 30 March 2004.
  4. Alberts, p. 2.
  5. Campbell, Neil A.; Brad Williamson; Robin J. Heyden (2006). Biology: Exploring Life. Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-250882-6. 
  6. Karp, Gerald (19 October 2009). Cell and Molecular Biology: Concepts and Experiments. John Wiley & Sons. p. 2. ISBN 9780470483374. Hooke called the pores cells because they re- minded him of the cells inhabited by monks living in a monastery. 
  7. Alan Chong Tero (1990). Achiever's Biology. Allied Publishers. p. 36. ISBN 9788184243697. In 1665, an Englishman, Robert Hooke observed a thin slice of" cork under a simple microscope. (A simple microscope is a microscope with only one biconvex lens, rather like a magnifying glass). He saw many small box like structures. These reminded him of small rooms called "cells" in which Christian monks lived and meditated. 
  8. Maton, Anthea (1997). Cells Building Blocks of Life. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-423476-6.