Callisto (muin)

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Callisto's anti-Jovian hemisphere imaged in 2001 bi NASA's Galileo spacecraft. It shaws a hivily cratert terrain. The lairge impact structur Asgard is on the limb at upper richt. The prominent rayed crater ablo an juist richt o centre is Bran.
Discovered biGalileo Galilei
Discovery dateJanuar 7, 1610[1]
Jupiter IV
AdjectivesCallistoan, Callistonian
Orbital chairactereestics
Periapsis1869000 km[lower-alpha 1]
Apoapsis1897000 km[lower-alpha 2]
1 882 700 km[2]
16.6890184 d[2]
8.204 km/s
Inclination2.017° (tae the ecliptic)
0.192° (tae local Laplace planes)[2]
Satellite oJupiter
Pheesical chairacteristics
Mean radius
2410.3±1.5 km (0.378 Yirds)[3]
7.30×107 km2 (0.143 Yirds)[lower-alpha 3]
Vollum5.9×1010 km3 (0.0541 Yirds)[lower-alpha 4]
Mass(1.075938±0.000137)×1023 kg (0.018 Yirds)[3]
Mean density
1.8344±0.0034 g/cm3[3]
1.235 m/s2 (0.126 g)[lower-alpha 5]
2.440 km/s[lower-alpha 6]
Albedo0.22 (geometric)[4]
Surface temp. min mean max
K[4] 80±5 134±11 165±5
5.65 (opposeetion)[5]
Surface pressur
7.5 picobar[6] (7.5×10−10 kPa, 7.4019×10−12 atm)
Composeetion bi vollum≈ 4×108 molecules/cm3 carbon dioxide;[6]
up tae 2×1010 molecules/cm3 molecular oxygen(O2)[7]

Callisto (Jupiter IV) is the seicont-lairgest muin o Jupiter, efter Ganymede.

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Periapsis is derived frae the semimajor axis (a) and eccentricity (e): .
  2. Apoapsis is derived frae the semimajor axis (a) and eccentricity (e): .
  3. Surface area derived from the radius (r): .
  4. Volume derived from the radius (r): .
  5. Surface gravity derived frae the mass (m), the gravitational constant (G) an the radius (r): .
  6. Escape velocity derived frae the mass (m), the gravitational constant (G) an the radius (r): .

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Galilei, G. (March 13, 1610). Sidereus Nuncius. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 "Planetary Satellite Mean Orbital Parameters". Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Anderson, J. D.; Jacobson, R. A.; McElrath, T. P.; Moore, W. B.; Schubert, G.; Thomas, P. C. (2001). "Shape, mean radius, gravity field and interior structure of Callisto". Icarus. 153 (1): 157–161. Bibcode:2001Icar..153..157A. doi:10.1006/icar.2001.6664. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Moore, Jeffrey M.; Chapman, Clark R.; Bierhaus, Edward B.; et al. (2004). "Callisto" (PDF). In Bagenal, F.; Dowling, T.E.; McKinnon, W.B. Jupiter: The planet, Satellites and Magnetosphere. Cambridge University Press. 
  5. "Classic Satellites of the Solar System". Observatorio ARVAL. Retrieved 2007-07-13. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Carlson, R. W.; et al. (1999). "A Tenuous Carbon Dioxide Atmosphere on Jupiter's Moon Callisto" (PDF). Science. 283 (5403): 820–821. Bibcode:1999Sci...283..820C. doi:10.1126/science.283.5403.820. PMID 9933159. 
  7. Liang, M. C.; Lane, B. F.; Pappalardo, R. T.; et al. (2005). "Atmosphere of Callisto" (PDF). Journal of Geophysical Research. 110 (E2): E02003. Bibcode:2005JGRE..11002003L. doi:10.1029/2004JE002322.