Battle o Tours

Frae Wikipedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Battle o Tours
Pairt o the Umayyad invasion o Gaul
Steuben - Bataille de Poitiers.png
Charles de Steuben's Bataille de Poitiers en octobre 732 romantically depicts a triumphant Charles Martel (moontit) facin Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi (richt) at the Battle o Tours.
Date10 October 732[10]
LocationMoussais-la-Bataille, Fraunce.[11]
Result Decisive Frankish victory, widrawal o the Umayyad airmy.[12][13]
Belligerents

Kinrick o the Franks

Umayyad Caliphate

Commanders an leaders
Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi 
Strenth
Varyin estimates 15,000–20,000, awtho ither estimates range frae 30,000 tae 80,000 [14]

20,000–25,000. Ither estimates an aw range up tae 80,000, wi 50,000 nae an uncommon estimate.[14]


Arab soorces: aboot 50,000 in the beginnin o the campaign.
Casualties an losses
Estimatit from 1,100 tae 1,500,[15] awtho soorces unclear Estimatit 12,000, awtho soorces unclear. Maist notably Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi.[16]

The Battle o Tours (10 October 732)[17] – an aw cried the Battle o Poitiers an, bi Arab soorces, the Battle o the Palace o the Mairtyrs (Arabic: معركة بلاط الشهداء‎, translit. Ma'arakat Balāṭ ash-Shuhadā’)[18][19][20] – wis focht bi Frankish an Burgundian[21][22] forces unner Charles Martel against an airmy o the Umayyad Caliphate led bi Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, Govrenor-General o al-Andalus.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "The state of Islam in Al Andalus", written by Mohammed Abdullah Annan, ((The first era-The first section, from the conquest until the beginning of the era of Al-Nasir)). Fourth edition, published by Khanji library in Cairo. p. 96
  2. Dawn of Al-Andalus, by DR. Hussain Mones, a study of the history of Muslim Spain from the Arab conquest in 711 C.E. till the rise of the Umayyad Emirate of Cordova in 756 C.E., published in Dar Al-Manahel and Al-Asr Al-Hadith, Beirut, Lebanon."First Edition". p. 330
  3. 3.0 3.1 Balat Al-Shuhada, led by Abd Ar-Rahman Al-Ghafiqi, by Dr. Shawqi Abu Khalil, published in Dar Al-Fekr, Damascus, Syria, and Dar Al-Fekr Al-Mo-aser, Beirut, Lebanon. "Third Edition". ISBN 1-57547-503-0. p. 34
  4. 4.0 4.1 Balat Al-Shuhada battle, in Islamic and European history, by DR. Abd Al-Fattah Muqallid Al-Ghunaymi, published in Alam Alkotob, Cairo, Egypt. "First Edition". ISBN 977-232-081-9. p. 128
  5. Balat Al-Shuhada, Led by Abd Ar-Rahman Al-Ghafiqi, by Dr. Shawqi Abu Khalil, published in Dar Al-Fekr, Damascus, Syria, and Dar Al-Fekr Al-Mo-aser, Beirut, Lebanon. "Third Edition". ISBN 1-57547-503-0. pp. 29–30
  6. The Andalusian History, from the Islamic conquest till the faw o Granada 92–897 A.H. (711–1492 C.E.), bi Professor AbdurRahman Ali El-Hajji, a professor o the Islamic history at Baghdad Varsity, published in Dar Al-Qalam, in Damascus, an in Beirut. "Seicont Edeetion". p. 202
  7. Primary Islamic soorces uised the name "Franks" tae refer tae aw the naitions o Europe except Goths an Romans
  8. Balat Al-Shuhada, led bi Abdul Rahman Al-Ghafiqi, bi Dr. Shawqi Abu Khalil, published in Dar Al-Fekr, Damascus, Sirie, an Dar Al-Fekr Al-Mo-aser, Beirut, Lebanon. "Third Edeetion". ISBN 1-57547-503-0. p. 25
  9. Cummins, Joseph (2011). History's Greatest Wars: The Epic Conflicts that Shaped the Modern World (in Inglis). Fair Winds Press. p. 50. ISBN 9781592334711. 
  10. The Andalusian History, frae the Islamic conquest till the faw o Granada 92–897 A.H. (711–1492 C.E.), bi Professor AbdurRahman Ali El-Hajji, a professor o the Islamic history at Baghdad Varsity, published in Dar Al-Qalam, in Damascus, an in Beirut. "Seicont Edeetion". p. 193
  11. The Andalusian History, frae the Islamic conquest till the faw o Granada 92–897 A.H. (711–1492 C.E.), bi Professor AbdurRahman Ali El-Hajji, a professor o the Islamic history at Baghdad Varsity, published in Dar Al-Qalam, in Damascus, an in Beirut. "Seicont Edition". p. 194
  12. The Andalusian History, frae the Islamic conquest till the faw o Granada 92–897 A.H. (711–1492 C.E.), bi Professor AbdurRahman Ali El-Hajji, a professor o the Islamic history at Baghdad Varsity, published in Dar Al-Qalam, in Damascus, an in Beirut. "Seicont Edeetion". pp. 198–99
  13. Balat Al-Shuhada battle, in Islamic an European history, bi Dr. Abd Al-Fattah Muqallid Al-Ghunaymi, published in Alam Alkotob, Cairo, Egyp. "First Edeetion". ISBN 977-232-081-9. p. 77
  14. 14.0 14.1 Tom oberhofer. "battle of poitiers 729 battle of Moussais, battle of Tours, Charles Martel Eudes of Aquitaine, Abd. er-Rahman, medieval warfare". Home.eckerd.edu. Retrieved 2012-10-04. 
  15. "Battle of Poitiers/Tours 10th October 732". Military Times. 
  16. Hanson, 2001, p. 141.
  17. Oman, 1960, p. 167, gies the tradeetional date o October 10, 732. White 1962, p. 3, note 3, citin Baudot 1955, gaes wi October 17, 733. Collins 1989, pp. 90–91, concludes "late (October?) 733" based on the "likely" appyntment date o the successor o Abdul Rahman, that wis killt in the battle. Watson 1993, p. 52, cites problems wi Baudot, sayin Baudot’s incorrect dating of the battle as 733 A.D. has been employed to this day by those unfamiliar with the sources.
  18. Arabic lrif dictionars: Al-Ghani Dictionary, Al-Ra-ed Dictionary,an Al-Waseit Dictionary mentions that the meanin o "Balat" is the Palace o a keeng
  19. the oreegin o the Arabic wird Balat is the same o the Laitin wird Palatium, an the Scots wird Pailace
  20. Balat AL-Shuhada, led bi General Abdul Rahman Al-Ghafiqi, bi Dr. Shawqi Abu Khalil, published in Dar Al-Fekr, Damascus, Sirie, an Dar Al-Fekr Al-Mo-aser, Beirut, Lebanon. "Third Edeetion". ISBN 1-57547-503-0. p. 32 : the wird "Balat" means the Pailace o a keeng
  21. Bachrach, 2001, p. 276.
  22. Fouracre, 2002, p. 87 citin the Vita Eucherii, ed. W. Levison, Monumenta Germaniæ Historica, Scriptores Rerum Merovingicarum VII, pp. 46–53, ch. 8, pp. 49–50; Gesta Episcoporum Autissiodorensium, extracts ed. G. Waitz, Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores XIII, pp. 394–400, ch. 27, p. 394.

Coordinates: 47°23′37″N 0°41′21″E / 47.3936°N 0.6892°E / 47.3936; 0.6892