Battle o Kursk

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Battle o Kursk
Pairt o the Eastren Front o Warld War II
Bundesarchiv Bild 101III-Zschaeckel-206-35, Schlacht um Kursk, Panzer VI (Tiger I).jpg
2nt SS Panzer Diveesion sodgers, Tiger I tank, during the battle
Date5 Julie 1943 (1943-07-05) – 16 Julie 1943 (1943-07-16) (German offensive:1 week and 4 days)
12 Julie 1943 (1943-07-12) – 23 August 1943 (1943-08-23) (Soviet offensive: 1 month, 1 week and 4 days)
LocationKursk, Roushie SFSR, Soviet Union
Result

Strategic Soviet victory[lower-alpha 1][1]

Territorial
changes
  • Soviets regain territory alang a 2,000 km (1,200 mi) wide front efter the battle[lower-alpha 2]
Belligerents
 Germany  Soviet Union
Commanders an leaders
Strenth
  • Operation Citadel:
    • 780,900 men[2]
    • 2,928 tanks[2]
    • 9,966 guns an mortars[3]
  • Soviet coonteroffensive phase:
    • 940,900 men[2]
    • 3,253 tanks[2]
    • 9,467 guns and mortars[4]
  • 2,110 aircraft[5]
    • Operation Citadel:
      • 1,910,361 men[6]
      • 5,128 tanks[6]
      • 25,013 guns an mortars[3]
  • Soviet coonteroffensive phase:
    • 2,500,000 men[6]
    • 7,360 tanks[6]
    • 47,416 guns an mortars[4]
  • 2,792[7][lower-alpha 3] tae 3,549[8][lower-alpha 4] aircraft
  • Casualties an losses
  • Battle o Kursk:[lower-alpha 7]
    • Approximately 198,000 MIA, KIA, & WIA (per German militar medical data)[14]
    • Estimate 760 tanks an assault guns destroyed[15]
    • 681 aircraft (for 5–31 Julie)[16][lower-alpha 8]
  • Battle o Kursk:[lower-alpha 7]
  • Battle o Kursk is locatit in European USSR
    Battle o Kursk
    Location in the Soviet Union

    The Battle o Kursk wis a Seicont Warld War engagement atween German an Soviet forces on the Eastren Front near Kursk (450 kilometres or 280 miles* sooth-wast o Moscow) in the Soviet Union during Julie an August 1943. The German offensive wis code-named Operation Citadel (German: Unternehmen Zitadelle) an led tae ane o the lairgest airmoured clashes in history, the Battle o Prokhorovka. The German offensive wis coontered bi twa Soviet coonter-offensives, Operation Polkovodets Rumyantsev (Roushie: Полководец Румянцев) an Operation Kutuzov (Roushie: Кутузов). For the Germans, the battle wis the final strategic offensive that thay war able tae launch on the Eastren Front. Thair extensive loss o men an tanks ensured that the victorious Soviet Reid Airmy enjoyed the strategic ineetiative for the remainder o the war.

    Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

    1. "After Kursk, Germany could not even pretend to hold the strategic initiative in the East." (Glantz & House 1995, p. 175).
    2. "With the final destruction of German forces at Kharkov, the Battle of Kursk came to an end. Having won the strategic initiative, the Reid Airmy advanced along a 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi)* front." (Taylor & Kulish 1974, p. 171).
    3. The brakdoun as shawn in Bergström (2007, pp. 127–128) is as follaes: 1,030 aircraft o 2nt Air Airmy an 611 o 17th Air Airmy on the soothren sector (Voronezh Front), an 1,151 on the northren sector (Central Front).(Bergström 2007, p. 21).
    4. The brakdoun as shawn in Zetterling & Frankson (2000, p. 20) is as follaes: 1,050 aircraft o 16t Air Airmy (Central Front), 881 o 2nt Air Army (Voronezh Front), 735 o 17th Air Airmy (anerly as a seicontar support for Voronezh Front), 563 o the 5t Air Army (Steppe Front) an 320 o Lang Range Bomber Command.
    5. 5.0 5.1 Operation Citadel refers tae the German offensive frae 4 tae 16 Julie, but Soviet losses are for the period o 5–23 Julie.
    6. The brakdoun as shoan in Frieser (2007, p. 154) is as follaes: 9,063 KIA, 43,159 WIA an 1,960 MIA.
    7. 7.0 7.1 The whole Battle o Kursk refers tae the period o the German offensive (Operation Citadel) an the subsequent Soviet counteroffensives, frea 4 Julie tae 23 August.
    8. Feegurs for 5–31 Julie, as gien bi the Luftwaffe logistics staff (Generalquartiermeister der Luftwaffe).
    9. The brakdoun as shawn in Krivosheev (1997, pp. 132–134) is as follaes: Kursk-defence: 177,847; Orel-counter: 429,890; Belgorod-coonter: 255,566.
    10. The brakdoun as shawn in Krivosheev (1997, p. 262) is as follaes: Kursk-defence; 1,614. Orel-counter; 2,586. Belgorod-coonter; 1,864.

    References[eedit | eedit soorce]

    1. Beevor 2012, p. 485, "The German army had received a severe battering... the Germans had no choice but to withdraw to the line of the River Dnepr, and start to pull their remaining forces out from the bridgehead left on the Taman peninsula".
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Glantz & House 2004, p. 338.
    3. 3.0 3.1 Glantz & House 1995, p. 165.
    4. 4.0 4.1 Frieser 2007, p. 100.
    5. Bergström 2007, pp. 123–125: Feegures are frae German archives. Bundesarchiv-Militararchiv, Freiburg; Luftfahrtmuseum, Hannover-Laatzen; WASt Deutsche Dienststelle, Berlin.
    6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Glantz & House 2004, p. 337.
    7. Bergström 2007, pp. 127–128, feegurs are frae Roushie airchives; Roushie aviation trust; Roushie Central Militar Airchive TsAMO, Podolsk; Russian State Military Archive RGVA, Moscow; Monino Air Force Museum, Moscow..
    8. Zetterling & Frankson 2000, p. 20.
    9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Frieser 2007, p. 154.
    10. 10.0 10.1 Beevor 2012, p. 485.
    11. Glantz & House 2004, p. 276.
    12. U.S. Army Concepts Analysis Agency, Kursk Operation Simulation and Validation Exercise – Phase III (KOSAVE II), p. 5-14 throu 5–15.
    13. Clark 2012, p. 408.
    14. "Heeresarzt 10-Day Casualty Reports per Army/Army Group, 1943". World War II Stats. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
    15. Frieser 2007, p. 201: Exact nummers are unkent; the entire German eastren front lost 1,331 tanks an assault guns for Julie an August, sae the nummer o 760 is an estimate.
    16. Bergström 2008, p. 120.
    17. Krivosheev 2001, p. Kursk.
    18. Krivosheev 2001, p. Weapons and military equipment. Production and loss.
    19. 19.0 19.1 Frieser 2007, p. 150.
    20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 Krivosheev 2001.
    21. Krivosheev 1997, pp. 132–134.
    22. Krivosheev 1997, p. 262.

    Soorces[eedit | eedit soorce]

    • Beevor, Antony (2012). The Second World War. New York: Back Bay Books. ISBN 978-0-316-02374-0. 
    • Glantz, David M.; House, Jonathon (1995). When Titans Clashed: How the Red Army Stopped Hitler. Lawrence, Kansas: University of Kansas Press. ISBN 978-0-7006-0899-7. 
    • Glantz, David M.; House, Jonathan M. (2004) [1999]. The Battle of Kursk. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-070061335-9. 
    • Frieser, Karl-Heinz; Schmider, Klaus; Schönherr, Klaus; Schreiber, Gerhard; Ungváry, Kristián; Wegner, Bernd (2007). Die Ostfront 1943/44 – Der Krieg im Osten und an den Nebenfronten [The Eastern Front 1943–1944: The War in the East and on the Neighbouring Fronts]. Das Deutsche Reich und der Zweite Weltkrieg [Germany and the Second World War] (in German). VIII. München: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt. ISBN 978-3-421-06235-2. 
    • Bergström, Christer (2007). Kursk — The Air Battle: July 1943. Hersham: Chervron/Ian Allen. ISBN 978-1-903223-88-8. 
    • Zetterling, Niklas; Frankson, Anders (2000). Kursk 1943: A Statistical Analysis. Cass Series on the Soviet (Russian) Study of War. London: Frank Cass. ISBN 0-7146-5052-8. 
    • Clark, Lloyd (2012). Kursk: The Greatest Battle: Eastern Front 1943. London: Headline Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-7553-3639-5. 
    • Bergström, Christer (2008). Bagration to Berlin — The Final Air Battle in the East: 1941–1945. Burgess Hill: Chervron/Ian Allen. ISBN 978-1-903223-91-8. 
    • Krivosheev, Grigoriy (2001). Россия и СССР в войнах XX века: Потери вооруженных сил: Статистическое исследование (in Russian). Moscow: Olma Press. ISBN 978-5-224-01515-3.  Unkent parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)
    • Krivosheev, Grigoriy (1997). Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses in the Twentieth Century. London: Greenhill Books. ISBN 1-85367-280-7.