Battle o Berlin

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Battle o Berlin
Pairt o the Eastren Front o Warld War II
Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-P054320, Berlin, Brandenburger Tor und Pariser Platz.jpg
Date16 Aprile – 2 Mey 1945
LocationBerlin, Germany
52°31′N 13°23′E / 52.517°N 13.383°E / 52.517; 13.383Coordinates: 52°31′N 13°23′E / 52.517°N 13.383°E / 52.517; 13.383
Result

Decisive Soviet victory

  • Suicide o Adolf Hitler an daiths o ither heich-rankin Nazi offeecials
  • Uncondeetional surrender o the Berlin ceety garrison on 2 May. German forces still fechtin the battle ootside Berlin capitulatit on 8/9 Mey (follaein the uncondeetional surrender o aw German forces—see End o Warld War II in Europe)
Territorial
changes
Destruction o Nazi Germany
Soviets occupy what will later be East Germany.
Belligerents
 Germany
Commanders an leaders
1st Beloroushie Front: 2nt Beloroushie Front: 1st Ukrainian Front: Army Group Vistula: Airmy Group Centre: Berlin Defence Area:
Strenth
Casualties an losses
  • Archival research
    (operational total)
  • 81,116 deid or missin[10]
  • 280,251 sick or woondit
  • 1,997 tanks an SPGs destroyed[11]
  • 2,108 artillery pieces
  • 917 aircraft[11]
  • Estimatit:
    92,000–100,000 killed
  • 220,000 woondit[12][lower-alpha 5]
  • 480,000 capturt[13]
  • Inside Berlin Defence Area:
  • about 22,000 military dead
  • 22,000 civilian dead[14]

The Battle o Berlin, designatit the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation bi the Soviet Union, wis the final major offensive o the European theatre o Warld War II.[lower-alpha 6]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Heinrici wis replaced bi General Kurt Student on 28 Aprile. General Kurt von Tippelskirch wis named as Heinrici's interim replacement till Student could arrive an assume control. Student wis captured bi the Breetish an niver arrived (Dollinger 1967, p. 228).
  2. Weidling replaced Oberstleutnant Ernst Kaether as commander o Berlin wha anerly held the post for ane day haein taken command frae Reymann.
  3. Ineetial Soviet estimates haed placed the tot strength at 1 million men, but this wis an owerestimate (Glantz 1998, pp. 258–259).
  4. A lairge nummer o the 45,000 war truips o the LVI Panzer Corps that war at the stairt o the battle pairt o the German IX Airmy on the Seelow Heights.
  5. German estimate (Müller) based on incomplete airchival data: 92,000 for Seelow, Halbe an inside Berlin; 100,000 for the whole Berlin aurie. Ineetial Soviet casualties estimates are 458,080 killed an 479,298 capturt, but thir war based on kill claims an an incorrect nummer o tot German strenth (Glantz 1998, pp. 258–259). For information aboot the genesis o the "Das Deutsch Reich und der Zweite Weltkrieg" project unner the Military History Research Office of the Bundeswehr, refer tae Ziemke 1983, pp. 398–407.
  6. The last offensive o the European war wis the Prague Offensive on 6–11 Mey 1945, when the Reid Airmy, wi the help o Pols, Romanie, an Czechoslovak forces defeatit the pairts o Airmy Group Centre which continued tae reseest in Czechoslovakie. Thare war a nummer o smaw battles an skirmishes involvin smaw bouks o men, but na ither lairge scale fechtin that resultit in the daith o thoosands o fowk.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Zaloga 1982, p. 27.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Glantz 1998, p. 261.
  3. Ziemke 1969, p. 71.
  4. Murray & Millett 2000, p. 482.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Beevor 2002, p. 287.
  6. Antill 2005, p. 28.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Glantz 1998, p. 373.
  8. Wagner 1974, p. 346.
  9. Bergstrom 2007, p. 117.
  10. Krivosheev 1997, p. 157.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Krivosheev 1997, p. 263.
  12. Müller 2008, p. 673.
  13. Glantz 2001, p. 95.
  14. Antill 2005, p. 85.

Citit soorces

  • Zaloga, Steven J. (1982), 'The Polish Army, 1939–45, Osprey Publishing
  • Glantz, David M. (1998), When Titans Clashed: How the Red Army Stopped Hitler, University Press of Kansas, ISBN 978-0-7006-0899-7
  • Glantz, David M. (11 October 2001), The Soviet-German War 1941–1945: Myths and Realities: A Survey Essay, The Strom Thurmond Institute
  • Ziemke, Earl F. (1969), Battle for Berlin End of the Third Reich Ballantine's Illustrated History of World War II (Battle Book #6), Ballantine Books
  • Murray, Williamson; Millett, Allan Reed (2000), A War to be Won, Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0-674-00680-5
  • Beevor, Antony (2002), Berlin: The Downfall 1945, Viking-Penguin Books, ISBN 978-0-670-03041-5
  • Antill, Peter (2005), Berlin 1945, Osprey, ISBN 978-1-84176-915-8
  • Wagner, Ray (1974), The Soviet Air Force in World War II: the Official History, Doubleday
  • Bergstrom, Christer (2007), Bagration to Berlin – The Final Air Battles in the East: 1944–1945, Ian Allan, ISBN 978-1-903223-91-8
  • Krivosheev, G. F. (1997), Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses in the Twentieth Century, Greenhill Books, ISBN 978-1-85367-280-4
  • Müller, Rolf-Dieter (2008), Das Deutsche Reich und der Zweite Weltkrieg, Band 10/1: Der Zusammenbruch des Deutschen Reiches 1945 und die Folgen des Zweiten Weltkrieges – Teilbd 1: Die militärische Niederwerfung der Wehrmacht (in German), Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, ISBN 978-3-421-06237-6
  • Ziemke, Earl F. (1983), "Germany and World War II: The Official History?", Central European History, 16 (4): 398–407, doi:10.1017/S0008938900001266
  • Dollinger, Hans (1967) [1965], The Decline and Fall of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan, New York: Bonanza Books, ISBN 978-0517013137