The Baikonur Cosmodrome (Roushie: космодром «Байконур»; Kazakh: Байқоңыр ғарыш айлағы) is the warld's first an lairgest operational space launch facility. It is locatit in the desert steppe o Kazakhstan, aboot 200 kilometres (124 mi) east o the Aral Sea, north o the Syr Darya river, near Tyuratam railway station, at 90 meters abuin sea level. It is leased bi the Kazakh govrenment tae Roushie (currently till 2050) an is managed jyntly bi the Roushie Federal Space Agency an the Roushie Aerospace Defence Forces. The shape o the aurie leased is an ellipse, measurin 90 kilometres (56 mi) east-wast bi 85 kilometres (53 mi) north-sooth, wi the cosmodrome at the centre. It wis oreeginally biggit bi the Soviet Union in the late 1950s as the base o operations for its space program. Unner the current Roushie space program Baikonur remains a busy space port, wi numerous commercial, militar an scienteefic missions bein launched annually. Currently, aw manned Roushie spaceflichts are launched frae Baikonur.
Baith Vostok 1, the first manned spacecraft in human history, an afore it Sputnik 1, the warld's first orbital spaceflicht o ony sort, wur launched frae ane o Baikonur's launch pads, which is presently kent as Gagarin's Start.