The BM-21 "Grad" (Roushie: БМ-21 "Град"), is a Soviet truck-mounted 122 mm multiple rocket launcher. The wappens seestem an the M-21OF rocket it fires war developed in the early 1960s, an saw thair first combat uise in Mairch 1969 during the Sino-Soviet border conflict. BM stands for boyevaya mashina (combat vehicle), an the nickname grad means "hail". The complete seestem wi the BM-21 launch vehicle an the M-21OF rocket is designatit as the M-21 field rocket seestem. The complete seestem is mair commonly kent as a Grad multiple rocket launcher seestem. In NATO countries, the seestem (aither the complete seestem or the launch vehicle anly) wis initially kent as M1964. Several ither countries haeve copied it or developed seemilar seestems.
Variants[eedit | eedit soorce]
Soviet Union and Russia[eedit | eedit soorce]
- BM-21: Original version kent as the BM-21 launch vehicle. The launcher unit wis mounted on a modified Ural-375D truck chassis.
- BM-21-1: Launch vehicles are mounted on a faimily o Ural-4320 truck chassis.
- 2B17 or an aw BM-21-1: This upgrade wis presented for the first time in 2003 and wis developed bi Motovilikha Plants frae Perm. The seestem is fitted wi a satellite navigation seestem NAP SNS, automated fire control seestem ASUNO, APP laying seestem and can fire a new generation o rockets wi a range o 40 km (25 mi). The truck is the Ural-43201.
- 9P138 "Grad-1": lighter 36-roond version, mounted on a sax-bi-sax ZIL-131 chassis. The vehicle wi supporting equipment (rockets, transporter 9T450 and re-supply truck 9F380) is referred tae as complex 9K55. The 9P138 can anly uise "short-range" rockets wi a range o 15 km (9.3 mi). It uised tae be kent in the West as BM-21b or M1976.
- BM-21V "Grad-V" (Vozdushnodesantiy – 'airborne') (NATO designation M1975): Developed for airborne troops in 1969. A GAZ-66B fower-bi-fower truck chassis is fitted wi a 12-roond 122 mm rocket launcher. The vehicle is sturdy eneuch tae be air-dropped. Parts o the vehicle sic as the canvas cab ruif can be taken off or folded doun tae reduce its size during transit. Lik the BM-21, the BM-21V haes stabilizing jacks on the rear o the vehicle for support when firing. The launch vehicle haes the industrial index o 9P125.
- 9А51 "Prima": 50-roond launcher on a Ural-4320 5t chassis. The vehicle thegither wi fire control equipment, the ammunition transporter TZM 9T232M an the new rocket 9M53F is referred tae as complex 9K59. Apparently anly a smaw nummer wis produced.
- "Grad-P Light portable rocket system": The complete seestem comprises a 9P132 single-roond man-portable launcher (it can be reloaded and uised again), a 9M22M 122 mm heich-explosive fragmentation rocket and a fire control panel. The seestem wis developed in the middle o the 1960s for North Vietnamese forces at war wi the US. It wis nae acceptit for service wi the Roushie Army, but it wis and is still popular wi paramilitary and guerrilla forces.
- BM-21PD "Damba" (Protivodiversionnyi): 40-roond launcher mounted on Ural-375D or 43201 truck chassis. Developed for pertection o naval bases against underwater infiltrations, uses special ammunition PRS-60 (Protivodiversionnyi Reaktivnyi Snaryad). The vehicle thegither wi ammunition transporter is referred tae as complex DP-62 "Damba".
- A-215 "Grad-M": 22-roond naval version, entered service in 1978.
- 9K51M "Tornado-G": an advanced version o the oreeginal BM-21 vehicle wi sophisticated fire control seestem, satellite navigation, an automatic target aiming.
Belarus[eedit | eedit soorce]
- BM-21A "BelGrad": This is a modernized version, based on a MAZ-631705 6×6 truck wi 425 hp diesel ingine TMZ-8424. Between the cab an the launcher thare is anither pack o 40 rockets. The seestem wis evaluated frae 1997 and entered service in 2001.
Ukraine[eedit | eedit soorce]
- BM-21M "Grad-U": Ukraine an aw haes switched the oreeginal Ural-375 truck wi gasoline ingine for a new truck wi diesel ingine, the KrAZ-6322-121. Some vehicles hae a langer chassis wi 40 additional rockets.
Georgia[eedit | eedit soorce]
- RS-122 Magaria: In Mairch 2012, the Republic o Georgia unveiled its ain heavily modified self-propelled version o the BM-21 Grad. Thare are innovative improvements seemilar tae that o its Pols counterpart. The crew cabin is armoured and well pertected in accordance tae STANAG level 2 or higher. The 40 tube launcher is fitted wi a pin pynt target seestem and haes a maximum firing distance o 45 km dependin on ammunition, that guarantees much mair precision at greater distances. Thare is eneuch room for an additional 40 tube pack. The launcher can be deployed and activated directly frae inside the crew cab, sae that the time atween salvos is heavily decreased. Houiver the traditional external setup is an aw available. An entire barrage is fired in less nor 20 seconds. The general purpose platform can an aw be uised for mair sophisticated rocket seestems.
People's Republic of China[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Type 81 SPRL: The Fowk's Republic o Cheenae produces the Type 81, which wis copied frae Roushie BM-21s captured in the 1979 Sino-Vietnamese War. Efter reverse engineering, it entered service wi the PLA in 1982 whaur its upgraded version nowadays kent as PHZ81. Due tae the fact that it is a direct copy, the Type 81 is extremely seemilar tae its Roushie predecessor. Its 40 tubes are mounted on a Shaanxi Automobile Works Yan'an SX2150 sax-bi-sax truck, which unlik the oreeginal Roushie version, haes a cab pertected bi blast shields.
- Type 83 SPRL: This is a 24-roond version, based on a Dong Feng truck. The launch tubes are arranged in three rows o 8. The launch vehicle haes a tot combat wecht o 8,700 kilograms (19,200 lb) and can an aw be uised as pairt o the mine-laying rocket seestem Type 84. Currently new rockets wi ranges atween 30 an 40 km (19 an 25 mi) are bein developed.
- Type 89 TSPRL: This is basically the 40-roond launcher o the BM-21 or Type 81 mounted on a tracked chassis wi 520 hp diesel ingine. The same chassis is an aw uised for the Type 83 152 mm self-propelled howitzer (PLZ83), the Type 89 120 mm tank destroyer (PTZ89) and several ither specialised vehicles. The vehicle haes a combat wecht o 29.9 short tons (27.1 metric tons) and cairies 40 spare rockets. Its current PLA designator is PHZ89.
- Type 90 SPRL: The NORINCO (Cheenae North Industries Corporation) Type 90 40-roond multiple rocket seestem is an indigenously designed and biggit seestem equipped wi an automatic operating and laying seestem, an electric firing seestem and an automatically reloadable pack o 40 rockets. It is very seemilar tae the M-77 Oganj but o 122 mm calibre. The chassis uised is the Tiema SC2030 6×6 truck. A Type 90 MRL battalion consists o three batteries, each wi 6 self-propelled rocket launchers, 6 ammunition re-supply trucks Tiema XC2200 wi 80 rockets and a battery command post on a DongFeng EQ-245 6×6 truck.
- Type 90A: Modernised version, based on a Tiema XC2200 6×6 truck chassis and fitted wi a modren fire control seestem wi GPS. The command post vehicle can lay and control a nummer o Type 90A seestems bi remote control for maximum firepower.
- Type 90B: Latest, digitalised version. The rocket launch vehicle is based on a Beifang Benchi 2629 series 6×6 truck (Mercedes-Benz copy) and haes a langer cabin. Each set nou an aw haes three forward observer vehicles, based on the armoured WZ551.
- PR50 SPMRL: Development o Type 90B SPMRL wi firepower increased bi 25% (50 roonds compared tae the oreeginal 40 roonds). Incorporate features o Weishi series self-propelled multiple rocket launchers (WS SPMRL) series sae that the operating cost and oweraw life cycle cost for baith when maist components o PR50 is interchangeable wi that o WS series. An aw incorporated is a featur originated in Type 90B, which is the adoption o rockets o different ranges, sae PR50 haes a wide range o 20 km tae 40 km.
- WS-6 SPMRL: A licht wecht and mair compact derivative o unguided 122 mm PR50 SPMRL for rapid deployment, wi nummer o tubes reduced bi 60% tae 40 * frae the oreeginal 100 o PR50 MLS.
- WS-22 SPMRL: A guided version o 122 mm PR50 MLS wi primitive cascade inertial terminal guidance, wi standard range o 20 tae 30 km
Former Czechoslovakia[eedit | eedit soorce]
- RM-70 (122 mm RAKETOMET vz. 70): In 1972 the Czechoslovak Army introduced its ain version o the BM-21 launch vehicle, designated the RM-70. The launcher unit comprises a bank o 40 launch tubes arranged in 4 rows o 10 and it is mounted on an aicht-bi-aicht 10-ton modified Tatra T813 truck. Unlik the BM-21, the RM-70 haes an armoured cab and eneuch room behind it tae allou for the storage o further 40 rockets. Those rockets can be directly reloaded intae launcher at the same time.
- RM-70/85: Modification o RM-70 launch vehicle on unarmored Tatra T815 truck.
Poland[eedit | eedit soorce]
- WR-40 "Langusta" (eng. European spiny lobster) (wyrzutnia rakietowa means rocket launcher): This is a modren Pols version wi a new fire control seestem (wi ballistic computer BFC201 and navigation seestem Sigma 30) and a modified launcher based on the Jelcz P662D.35G-27 6×6 truck, produced bi Jelcz Komponenty. The first vehicle entered service on 20 Mairch 2007. Probably aboot hauf o aw 227 Pols BM-21 launchers will be converted intae WR-40 launchers. New, modren types o munition war an aw developed for the launcher: the range is approximately 42 km (26 mi) for fragmentation-HE rockets "Fenix" and 32 km (20 mi) for cargo rockets. The Jelcz P662.D.35 truck wi lightly armoured cab is an aw believed tae be the base o a Pols multiple rocket launcher complex, which will possibly be developed in the future.
Egypt[eedit | eedit soorce]
The Egyptians domestically manufacture the rockets Sakr-18 and Sakr-36, wi a respective range o 18 km (11 mi) and 36 km (22 mi), an the latest Sakr-45 wi a superior range o 45 km (28 mi). Rather than a standard HE-Frag roond, the Egyptian military prefers a 23-kilogram (51 lb) cluster munition, which can be extremely effective against lightly armored equipment and troop concentrations. Baith rockets, as well as the oreeginal Soviet models o course, are fired bi locally manufactured rocket launchers lik the RL-21 (copy o BM-11) and RC-21 (copy o BM-21, seemilar tae the Hadid HM20). The Helwan Machine Tuils Company an aw produces portable seestems wi ane, three, fower and aicht launch tubes.
Palestine and the Gaza Strip[eedit | eedit soorce]
Syne 2006 Hamas haes fired 122 mm Grad rockets, copies made in Iran, an Eastern-bloc versions modified tae expand thair range and lethality, intae Israel. The rockets war believed tae be smuggled intae the Gaza Strip via tunnels frae Egyp. Some o the rockets war o a Cheenese Grad variant. Hamas soorces said thay war pleased bi the performance o the Cheenese variants o the BM-21 Grad rocket, which demonstrated a far greater range and blast impact than Palestinian-made rockets, as well as Roushie-origin Grads or Katyushas.
Hamas hae uised smaw man-portable single-tube launchers for rockets in attacks against Israel, designated 122 mm 9P132/BM-21-P. The 122 mm Grad rockets uised in Gaza hae a range o aboot 40 km (25 mi), and can reach the Israeli towns o Ashdod, Beer-Sheva, Ofakim, Gedera, Kiryat Gat, Ashqelon, Sderot, Rehovot, Kiryat Malachi and Gan Yavne. The Islamic Jihad an aw published a clip claiming device mounted uised as a multi-barrel rocket launcher on vehicle uised for first time in Gaza On 7 Apryle 2011, the Iron Dome seestem successfully intercepted a Grad rocket launched frae Gaza for the first time. The rockets war launched wioot thair dedicated platforms and bi untrained operators which causes very law accuracy. Ower 50% o the rockets miss entire ceeties and ower 10% end up hitting the sea.
Ethiopia[eedit | eedit soorce]
The Homicho Ammunition Engineering Complex produces the rockets while the Bishoftu Motorization Engineering Complex produces the launching tubes and haes converted existin trucks tae diesel ingine. Bishoftu motorization haes an aw produced a sax tube launcher tae be mounted on licht trucks.
North Korea[eedit | eedit soorce]
- BM-11: North Korean 30-tube version. The tubes are arranged in 2 banks o 15; aw rockets can be fired in as little as 15 seconds. The basis for the BM-11 seestem is a Japanese manufactured Isuzu chassis.
- MRL 122 mm M1977: U.S. DIA code for a seestem that appears tae be a direct copy o the BM-21 "Grad".
- MRL 122 mm M1985: This is a mair modren version, based on an Isuzu 6×6 truck and probably wi a 40-roond reload-pack mounted atween the cab an the launcher
Iran[eedit | eedit soorce]
D.I.O. frae Iran produces copies o the BM-11 and BM-21 seestems that can fire the oreeginal Soviet rockets as well as the locally developed "Arash" wi a range o 20.5 km (12.7 mi). Thare is an aw a rocket wi a range o 75 km (47 mi).
- HM20 – This is the Iranian version o the BM-21, mounted on a Mercedes-Benz 2624 6×6 truck. The launch pack houiver consists o 2 packs o 20 tubes. Reportedly thare is an aw a version wi an automatic reload-seestem, latest version is mounted on 6×6 MAN trucks.
- HM23 – Lighter 16-roond version wi twa packs o 8 launch tubes.
- HMxx – Iranian version o the 30-roond BM-11, based on a Mercedes-Benz LA 911B 4x4 truck. Some vehicles are equipped wi a licht hydraulic crane.
Iraq[eedit | eedit soorce]
Various 122mm-type rockets war deployed bi Iraq during the Iran-Iraq war, modified tae deliver nerve agents tae targets. This included the 40 inch lang, domestically produced Grad MLRS-compatible "Borak" warhead designed tae disperse sarin gas.
Pakistan[eedit | eedit soorce]
- KRL 122 – Kahuta Research Laboratories frae Pakistan hae developed a rocket launcher that is very seemilar tae the North-Korean BM-11[citation needit]. The KRL 122 wis oreeginally based on an Isuzu truck but later models uise the Reo M35 truck. Some soorces mention the designator Gadab. In addition tae the oreeginal Soviet rockets, the seestem can launch the "Yarmuk" rocket developed bi Pakistan Ordnance Factories.[citation needit] The KRL 122 haes achieved a maximum range o ower 40 km due tae the uise o upgraded 122 mm rockets.
Romania[eedit | eedit soorce]
- APR-21 (aruncător de proiectile reactive – rocket launcher): Romanian 21-roond launcher (3 rows o 7) mounted on a Bucegi SR-114 fower-bi-fower chassis. No langer uised bi the Romanian Army but some vehicles hae been exportit tae Nigeria and Croatia. Morocco haes the launch pack mounted on a Kaiser M35 truck.
- APR-40: Initially this designator wis uised for the oreeginal BM-21 "Grad" in Romanian service, but Aerostar SA haes developed an improved model, based on a DAC-665T sax-bi-sax truck. A slichtly improved model, cried APRA-40 or 40 APRA 122 FMC is based on the DAC 15.215 DFAEG truck. Each launcher is normally accompanied bi a re-supply truck MITC wi a 6t crane and a trailer RM13. The seestem is an aw uised bi Botswana, Bosnia, Cameroon, Croatia, Iran, Iraq, Liberia and Nigeria.
- LAROM or LAROM 160: This is an upgraded version that wis developed in cooperation wi Israel. The launch vehicle is based on the truck chassis DAC 25.360 DFAEG, fitted wi twa launch packs wi each 20 122 mm tubes or 13 160 mm tubes. The LAROM 160 can fire rockets lik the LAR Mk.IV wi a range o 45 km (28 mi). The seestem entered service wi the Romanian Land Forces in 2002.
Serbia[eedit | eedit soorce]
- LRSVM Morava: Universal modular MLRS wi possibilities tae uise aw models o Grad 122 mm rockets, baith wi M-77 Oganj and M-63 Plamen 128 mm rockets too.
- G-2000: Produced bi EdePro, G-2000 122 mm missile is wi range abuin 40 km.
South Africa[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Valkiri: This is an improved South African design based on a Unimog truck chassis bi Denel uisin 127 mm rockets.
- Bateleur: A newer, mair accurate version o the Valkiri. Based on the Withings (White Stallion) military recovery truck chassis. An aw produced bi Denel.
Thailand[eedit | eedit soorce]
Operators[eedit | eedit soorce]
Current operators[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Algeria: 200
- Angola: 75
- Armenia: 47
- Azerbaijan: 63
- Bangladesh: KRL 122, Type 90B
- Belaroushie: BM-21 and BM-21A "BelGrad"
- Bosnia and Herzegovina: 1 (BM-21) 36 (APR-40)
- Bulgarie: 192 active and 200 in storage
- Burkina Faso: 10
- Burundi: 12
- Cambodie: 200
- Cameroon: 50
- Chad: 4
- Congo-Brazzaville: 6
- Congo-Kinshasa: 6
- Côte d'Ivoire: 20
- Croatia: 64
- Cuba: 240
- Cyprus: 4
- Djibouti: 12
- Ecuador: 10
- Egypt: 85
- Eritrea: 25
- Ethiopie: 10
- Greece: 116 RM-70
- Hungary: 65 in reserve.[better soorce needit]
- Indie: 150+
- Indonesie: N/A RM-70 (operated bi marines)
- Iran: 100+
- Iraq: 55
- Kazakhstan: 100
- Kyrgyzstan: 21
- Lebanon: 30—includin some BM-11
- Liberia: ?
- Libie: 200+
- Macedonia: 12
- Mali: 2
- Moldova: 14
- Mongolie: 130
- Morocco: 36
- Mozambique: 5
- Myanmar: 70
- Nagorno Karabakh: 44
- Namibia: 4
- Nicaragua: 30
- Nigerie: 10 BM-21 Grad, 25 APR-21 and APR-40
- North Korea
- Pakistan: 25
- Palestine: Hamas and ither militants (includin Iranian made 20 km range and Cheenese 40 km range Grad variants)
- Peru: 14
- Poland: 75
- Qatar: 3
- Romanie: 352 APR-40 (124 bein upgraded tae LAROM)
- Roushie: 982; rockets wi the expired term uisin for training 9F839-1 Bobr. 2,500 (1,700 o them in storage) as o 2012 Military Balance International Institute for Strategic Studies 2012. 70 modernized Grad-M units war delivered in 2016.
- Sahrawi Republic: 10-15
- Senegal: 8 Grad-U
- Serbia: 348
- Somalia: 19
- Somaliland: 169
- Puntland: 189
- Sri Lanka: 5
- Syria: 270
- Tajikistan: 10
- Tanzania: 1?
- Thailand: 6 Type 81 SPRL
- Turkmenistan: 56
- Ukraine: 400
- Uzbekistan: 36
- Venezuela: 52
- Vietnam: 350
- Yemen: 280
- Zambia: 50
- Zimbabwe: 25
Former operators[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Finland: 24 units, kent as 122 RAKH 76. Nou withdrawn frae service.
- Israel: 50 confiscated frae militant groups, nae in active service.[citation needit]
- Soviet Union: Passed on tae successor states.
- Yugoslavia: Passed on tae successor states.
Evaluation only[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Fraunce: 3 units, foond bi French forces during Operation Serval, probably o Libyan origin.
- Unitit States: 75
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
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