Asthma

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Asthma
Two white plastic tubes with movable dials on the front
Peak flowe meters are uised tae meisur the peak expiratory flow rate, important in baith monitorin an diagnosin asthma.[1]
SpecialtyPulmonology
SymptomsRecurrin episodes o wheezin, cochin, chest tichtness, shortness o braith[2]
DurationLang term[3]
CausesGenetic an environmental factors[4]
Risk factorsAir pollution, allergens[3]
Diagnostic methodBased on symptoms, response tae therapy, spirometry[5]
TreatmentAvoidin triggers, inhaled corticosteroids, salbutamol[6][7]
Frequency358 million (2015)[8]
Daiths397,100 (2015)[9]

Asthma is a common lang-term inflammatory disease o the airweys o the lungs.[3] It is chairacterised bi variable an recurrin symptoms, reversible airflowe obstruction, an bronchospasm.[10] Symptoms include episodes o wheezin, cochin, chest tichtness, an shortness o braith.[2] Thir episodes mey occur a few times a day or a few times per week.[3] Dependin on the person, thay mey acome worse at nicht or wi exercise.[3]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. GINA 2011, p. 18
  2. 2.0 2.1 British Guideline 2009, p. 4
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 "Asthma Fact sheet №307". WHO. November 2013. Archived frae the oreeginal on June 29, 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2016. 
  4. Martinez F. D. (2007). "Genes, environments, development and asthma: a reappraisal". European Respiratory Journal. 29 (1): 179–84. doi:10.1183/09031936.00087906. PMID 17197483. 
  5. Lemanske, R. F.; Busse, W. W. (February 2010). "Asthma: clinical expression and molecular mechanisms". J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 125 (2 Suppl 2): S95–102. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2009.10.047. PMC 2853245Freely accessible. PMID 20176271. 
  6. NHLBI Guideline 2007, pp. 169–172
  7. NHLBI Guideline 2007, p. 214
  8. GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence, Collaborators. (8 October 2016). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1545–1602. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31678-6. PMC 5055577Freely accessible. PMID 27733282. 
  9. GBD 2015 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators. (8 October 2016). "Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1459–1544. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31012-1. PMID 27733281. 
  10. NHLBI Guideline 2007, pp. 11–12