Ashkenazi Jews

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Ashkenazi Jews
(יהודי אשכנז Y'hudey Ashkenaz in Ashkenazi Hebrew)
Tot population
(10[1]–11.2[2] million)
Regions wi signeeficant populations
 United States5–6 million[3]
Israel Israel2.8 million[1][4]
 Unitit Kinrick260,000
 Sooth Africae80,000
 New Zealand5,000
 Czech Republic3,000
Historical: Yiddish
Modren: Local leids, primarily:Inglis, Ebreu, Roushie
Judaism, some secular, irreleegious
Relatit ethnic groups
Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, Samaritans,[5][5][6][7] ither Levantines (Druze, Assyrians,[5][6] Kurds,[7] Arabs[5][6][8][9]), Mediterranean groups[10][11][12][13][14]

Ashkenazi Jews, forby kent as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (Ebreu: אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים‬, Ashkenazi Ebreu pronunciation: [ˌaʃkəˈnazim], singular: [ˌaʃkəˈnazi], Modren Hebrew: [aʃkenaˈzim, aʃkenaˈzi]; forby יְהוּדֵי אַשְׁכֲּנַזY'hudey Ashkenaz, lit. "The Jews o Germany"),[15] are a Jewish diaspora population wha coalesced as a distinct commonity o Jews in the Haly Roman Empire aroond the end o the 1st millennium.[16]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. a b "Ashkenazi Jews". The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
  2. "First genetic mutation for colorectal cancer identified in Ashkenazi Jews". The Gazette. Johns Hopkins University. 8 September 1997. Retrieved 24 Julie 2013.
  3. Feldman, Gabriel E. (Mey 2001). "Do Ashkenazi Jews have a Higher than expected Cancer Burden? Implications for cancer control prioritization efforts". Israel Medical Association Journal. 3 (5): 341–46. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
  4. Statistical Abstract of Israel, 2009, CBS. "Table 2.24 – Jews, by country of origin and age" (PDF). Retrieved 22 Mairch 2010.
  5. a b c d "Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and Other Israeli Populations From Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation" (PDF). Archived frae the original (PDF) on 8 Mey 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
  6. a b c "Jews Are The Genetic Brothers Of Palestinians, Syrians, And Lebanese". Science Daily. 9 Mey 2000. Retrieved 19 Julie 2013.
  7. a b
  8. Wade, Nicholas (9 Juin 2010). "Studies Show Jews' Genetic Similarity". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
  9. "High-resolution Y chromosome haplotypes of Israeli and Palestinian Arabs reveal geographic substructure and substantial overlap with haplotypes of Jews" (PDF). Retrieved 15 August 2013.
  10. Seldin MF, Shigeta R, Villoslada P, et al. (September 2006). "European population substructure: clustering of northern and southern populations". PLoS Genet. 2 (9): e143. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0020143. PMC 1564423. PMID 17044734. Archived frae the original on 9 Julie 2012. Retrieved 23 December 2021.
  11. Adams SM, Bosch E, Balaresque PL, et al. (December 2008). "The genetic legacy of religious diversity and intolerance: paternal lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula". American Journal of Human Genetics. 83 (6): 725–736. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.11.007. PMC 2668061. PMID 19061982.
  12. M. D. Costa and 16 others (2013). "A substantial prehistoric European ancestry amongst Ashkenazi maternal lineages". Nature Communications. 4. Bibcode:2013NatCo...4E2543C. doi:10.1038/ncomms3543. PMC 3806353. PMID 24104924.
  13. "Jewish Women's Genes Traced Mostly to Europe – Not Israel – Study Hits Claim Ashkenazi Jews Migrated From Holy Land". The Jewish Daily Forward. 12 October 2013.
  14. Shai Carmi; Ken Y. Hui; Ethan Kochav; Xinmin Liu; James Xue; Fillan Grady; Saurav Guha; Kinnari Upadhyay; Dan Ben-Avraham; Semanti Mukherjee; B. Monica Bowen; Tinu Thomas; Joseph Vijai; Marc Cruts; Guy Froyen; Diether Lambrechts; Stéphane Plaisance; Christine Van Broeckhoven; Philip Van Damme; Herwig Van Marck; et al. (September 2014). "Sequencing an Ashkenazi reference panel supports population-targeted personal genomics and illuminates Jewish and European origins". Nature Communications. 5. Bibcode:2014NatCo...5E4835C. doi:10.1038/ncomms5835. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
  15. Ashkenaz, based on Josephus: PACE: Antiquities of the Jews, 1.{{{chap}}}.{{{sec}}} (Whiston), Perseus Project AJ1.6.1, . an his explanation o Genesis 10:3, is considered tae be the progenitor o the auncient Gauls (the fowk o Gallia, meanin, frae Austrick, Fraunce an Belgium), an the auncient Franks (o, baith, Fraunce an Germany). Accordin tae Gedaliah ibn Jechia the Spaniard, in the name o Sefer Yuchasin (see: Gedaliah ibn Jechia, Shalshelet Ha-Kabbalah, Jerusalem 1962, p. 219; p. 228 in PDF), the stryndants o Ashkenaz haed oreeginally settled in whit wis then cried Bohemia an aa, which theday is the present-day Czech Republic. These places, accordin tae the Jerusalem Talmud (Megillah 1:9 [10a], war forby cried simply bi the diocese "Germamia". Germania, Germani, Germanica hae aw been used tae refer to the group o fowks comprisin the German Tribes, which include such fowks as Goths, whether Ostrogoths or Visigoths, Vandals an Franks, Burgundians, Alans, Langobards, Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Suebi and Alamanni. The entire region east o the Rhine River wis kent bi the Romans as "Germania" (Germany).
  16. Mosk, Carl (2013). Nationalism and economic development in modern Eurasia. New York: Routledge. p. 143. ISBN 9780415605182. In general the Ashkenazim originally came out of the Holy Roman Empire, speaking a version of German that incorporates Hebrew and Slavic words, Yiddish.