Arthur Schopenhauer

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Arthur Schopenhauer
Schopenhauer, 1855.
Born22 Februar 1788(1788-02-22)
Danzig (Gdańsk)
Died21 September 1860(1860-09-21) (aged 72)
Frankfurt, German Confederation
ResidenceDanzig, Hamburg an finally German Confederation
Era19t-century philosophie
RegionWastren philosophie
SchuilPost-Kantian philosophie
Main interests
Metapheesics, aesthetics, ethics, phenomenology, morality, psychology
Notable ideas
Will, Fowerfauld ruit o raison, Hedgehog's dilemma, philosophical pessimism
SignaturArthur Schopenhauer Signature.svg

Arthur Schopenhauer (German: [ˈaʁtʊʁ ˈʃɔpənˌhaʊ̯ɐ]; 22 Februar 1788 – 21 September 1860) wis a German philosopher. He is best kent for his 1818 wark The Warld as Will an Representation (wauxt in 1844), whaurin he chairacterises the phenomenal warld as the product o a blinnd an stainchless metapheesical will.[2][3] Proceedin frae the transcendental idealism o Immanuel Kant, Schopenhauer developit an atheistic metapheesical an ethical seestem that haes been descrived as an exemplar kythin o philosophical pessimism,[4][5][6] rejectin the contemporaneous post-Kantian philosophies o German idealism.[7][8] Schopenhauer wis amang the first thinkers in Wastren philosophie tae skare an affirm signeeficant tenets o Eastren philosophie (e.g., asceticism, the warld-as-appearance), haein ineetially arrived at seemilar conclusions as the eftercast o his ain philosophical wark.[9][10]

Tho his wark failed tae get substantious attention in his life, Schopenhauer haes haed a posthumous impact athort various discipleenes, includin philosophie, leeteratur, an science. His writin on aesthetics, morality, an psychology influenced thinkers an airtists ootthrou the 19t an 20t centuries. Thae that citit his influence include Friedrich Nietzsche,[11] Richard Wagner, Leo Tolstoy, Ludwig Wittgenstein,[12] Erwin Schrödinger, Otto Rank, Gustav Mahler, Joseph Campbell, Albert Einstein,[13] Anthony Ludovici,[14] Carl Jung, Thomas Mann, Émile Zola, George Bernard Shaw,[15] Jorge Luis Borges an Samuel Beckett.[16]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "John Gray: Forget everything you know — Profiles, People". London: The Independent. 3 September 2002. Archived frae the original on 9 Apryle 2010. Retrieved 12 Mairch 2010. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  2. Arthur Schopenhauer (2004). Essays and Aphorisms. Penguin Classics. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-14-044227-4.
  3. The Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary. 'Schopenhauer': Oxford University Press. 1991. p. 1298. ISBN 978-0-19-861248-3.
  4. Arthur Schopenhauer (2004). Essays and Aphorisms. Penguin Classics. pp. 22–36. ISBN 978-0-14-044227-4. …but there has been none who tried with so great a show of learning to demonstrate that the pessimistic outlook is justified, that life itself is really bad. It is to this end that Schopenhauer’s metaphysic of will and idea exists.
  5. Studies in Pessimism – audiobeuk frae LibriVox.
  6. David A. Leeming; Kathryn Madden; Stanton Marlan, eds. (2009). Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion, Volume 2. Springer. p. 824. ISBN 978-0-387-71801-9. A more accurate statement might be that for a German – rather than a French or British writer of that time – Schopenhauer was an honest and open atheist.
  7. Arthur Schopenhauer, The World as Will and Representation, Vol. 1, trans. E. Payne, (New York: Dover Publishing Inc., 1969), Vol. 2, Ch. 50.
  8. Dale Jacquette, ed. (2007). Schopenhauer, Philosophy and the Arts. Cambridge University Press. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-521-04406-6. For Kant, the mathematical sublime, as seen for example in the starry heavens, suggests to imagination the infinite, which in turn leads by subtle turns of contemplation to the concept of God. Schopenhauer's atheism will have none of this, and he rightly observes that despite adopting Kant's distinction between the dynamical and mathematical sublime, his theory of the sublime, making reference to the struggles and sufferings of struggles and sufferings of Will, is unlike Kant's.
  9. See the beuk-lenth study aboot oriental influences on the genesis o Schopenhauer's philosophie bi Urs App: Schopenhauer's Compass. An Introduction to Schopenhauer's Philosophy and its Origins. Wil: UniversityMedia, 2014 (ISBN 978-3-906000-03-9)
  10. Hergenhahn, B. R. (2009). An Introduction to the History of Psychology (6th ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 216. ISBN 978-0-495-50621-8. Although Schopenhauer was an atheist, he realized that his philosophy of denial had been part of several great religions; for example, Christianity, Hinduism, and Buddhism.
  11. Addressed in: Cate, Curtis. Friedrich Nietzsche. Chapter 7.
  12. Culture & Value, p. 24, 1933–34
  13. Albert Einstein in Mein Glaubensbekenntnis (August 1932): "I do not believe in free will. Schopenhauer's words: 'Man can do what he wants, but he cannot will what he wants,[Der Mensch kann wohl tun, was er will, aber er kann nicht wollen, was er will]' accompany me in all situations throughout my life and reconcile me with the actions of others, even if they are rather painful to me. This awareness of the lack of free will keeps me from taking myself and my fellow men too seriously as acting and deciding individuals, and from losing my temper." Schopenhauer's clearer, actual words were: "You can do what you will, but in any given moment of your life you can will only one definite thing and absolutely nothing other than that one thing." [Du kannst tun was du willst: aber du kannst in jedem gegebenen Augenblick deines Lebens nur ein Bestimmtes wollen und schlechterdings nichts anderes als dieses eine.] On the Freedom of the Will, Ch. II.
  14. Kerr, R. B. (1932). "Anthony M. Ludovici The prophet of anti-feminism". Retrieved 5 Mey 2019. Cite has empty unkent parameter: |dead-url= (help); no-break space character in |title= at position 20 (help)
  15. Frae the introduction tae Man and Superman: "Bunyan, Blake, Hogarth and Turner (these four apart and above all the English Classics), Goethe, Shelley, Schopenhauer, Wagner, Ibsen, Morris, Tolstoy, and Nietzsche are among the writers whose peculiar sense of the world I recognize as more or less akin to my own."
  16. Wicks, Robert (21 September 2018). Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University – via Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.