Apollo 8

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Apollo 8
NASA-Apollo8-Dec24-Earthrise.jpg
The crew o Apollo 8 war the first humans tae witness Earthrise, on December 24, 1968
Mission teepManned Lunar orbiter
OperatorNASA[1]
COSPAR ID1968-118A
SATCAT no.3626
Mission duration6 days, 3 hours, 42 minutes
Spacecraft properties
SpacecraftApollo CSM-103
Apollo LTA-B
ManufacturerNorth American Rockwell
Launch massCSM: 28,870 kilograms (63,650 lb)[2]
CM:5,621 kilograms (12,392 lb)
SM:23,250 kilograms (51,258 lb)
LTA: 9,000 kilograms (19,900 lb)[3]
Laundin mass4,979 kilograms (10,977 lb)
Crew
Crew size3
MembersFrank F. Borman, II
James A. Lovell, Jr.
William A. Anders
CallsignApollo 8
Stairt o mission
Launch dateDecember 21, 1968, 12:51:00 (1968-12-21UTC12:51Z) UTC
RocketSaturn V SA-503
Launch steidKennedy LC-39A
End of mission
Rekivert biUSS Yorktown
Laundin dateDecember 27, 1968, 15:51:42 (1968-12-27UTC15:51:43Z) UTC[4]
Laundin steid8°8′N 165°1′W / 8.133°N 165.017°W / 8.133; -165.017 (Apollo 8 landing)[4]
Orbital parameters
Reference seestemSelenocentric
Periselene110.6 kilometers (59.7 nmi)
Aposelene112.4 kilometers (60.7 nmi)
Inclination12 degrees
Period2 oors
EpochDecember 24, 1968, ~02:30 UTC
Lunar orbiter
Spacecraft componentCSM
Orbital insertionDecember 24, 1968, 9:59:20 UTC[5]
Departit orbitDecember 25, 1968, 6:10:17 UTC[4]
Orbits10
Apollo-8-patch.png Apollo 8 Crewmembers - GPN-2000-001125.jpg
Left to right: Lovell, Anders, Borman 

Apollo 8, the seicont human spaceflicht mission in the Unitit States Apollo space program, wis launched on December 21, 1968, an acame the first manned spacecraft tae leave Yird orbit, reach the Yird's Muin, orbit it an return safely tae Yird.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Orloff, Richard W. (September 2004) [First published 2000]. "Table of Contents". Apollo by the Numbers: A Statistical Reference. NASA History Division, Office of Policy and Plans. NASA History Series. Washington, D.C.: NASA. ISBN 0-16-050631-X. LCCN 00061677. NASA SP-2000-4029. Retrieved June 28, 2013.
  2. "Apollo 8 Press Kit" (PDF) (Press kit). NASA. December 15, 1968. pp. 33–34. Release No. 68-208. Retrieved June 28, 2013. – The spacecraft mass at launch includes the CM and SM, but excludes the 4,000 kilograms (8,900 lb) Launch Escape System (LES), which was discarded before reaching Earth orbit.
  3. "Apollo 8 Mission Report" (PDF). NASA. February 1969. p. A-14. MSC-PA-R-69-1. Retrieved June 28, 2013. – The mass for LTA-B was less than that of a flying LM, because it was essentially a boilerplate decent stage. A fully loaded, flight-ready LM, like the Eagle from Apollo 11, had a mass of 15,095 kilograms (33,278 lb), including propellants.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "Apollo 8 Mission Report" (PDF). NASA. February 1969. p. 3-2. MSC-PA-R-69-1. Retrieved June 28, 2013.
  5. "Apollo 8 Mission Report" (PDF). NASA. February 1969. p. 3-1. MSC-PA-R-69-1. Retrieved May 8, 2015.