Apollo 8

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Apollo 8
NASA-Apollo8-Dec24-Earthrise.jpg
The crew o Apollo 8 war the first humans tae witness Earthrise, on December 24, 1968
Mission type Manned Lunar orbiter
Operator NASA[1]
COSPAR ID 1968-118A
SATCAT № 3626
Mission duration 6 days, 3 hours, 42 minutes
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft Apollo CSM-103
Apollo LTA-B
Manufacturer North American Rockwell
Launch mass CSM: 28,870 kilograms (63,650 lb)[2]
CM:5,621 kilograms (12,392 lb)
SM:23,250 kilograms (51,258 lb)
LTA: 9,000 kilograms (19,900 lb)[3]
Laundin mass 4,979 kilograms (10,977 lb)
Crew
Crew size 3
Members Frank F. Borman, II
James A. Lovell, Jr.
William A. Anders
Callsign Apollo 8
Start o mission
Launch date December 21, 1968, 12:51:00 (1968-12-21UTC12:51Z) UTC
Rocket Saturn V SA-503
Launch steid Kennedy LC-39A
End o mission
Recovered bi USS Yorktown
Landing date December 27, 1968, 15:51:42 (1968-12-27UTC15:51:43Z) UTC[4]
Landing site 8°8′N 165°1′W / 8.133°N 165.017°W / 8.133; -165.017 (Apollo 8 landing)[4]
Orbital parameters
Reference seestem Selenocentric
Periselene 110.6 kilometers (59.7 nmi)
Aposelene 112.4 kilometers (60.7 nmi)
Inclination 12 degrees
Period 2 oors
Epoch December 24, 1968, ~02:30 UTC
Lunar orbiter
Spacecraft component CSM
Orbital insertion December 24, 1968, 9:59:20 UTC[5]
Departit orbit December 25, 1968, 6:10:17 UTC[4]
Orbits 10

Apollo-8-patch.png Apollo 8 Crewmembers - GPN-2000-001125.jpg
Left to right: Lovell, Anders, Borman


Apollo program
← Apollo 7 Apollo 9

Apollo 8, the seicont human spaceflicht mission in the Unitit States Apollo space program, wis launched on December 21, 1968, an acame the first manned spacecraft tae leave Yird orbit, reach the Yird's Muin, orbit it an return safely tae Yird.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Orloff, Richard W. (September 2004) [First published 2000]. "Table of Contents". Apollo by the Numbers: A Statistical Reference. NASA History Division, Office of Policy and Plans. NASA History Series. Washington, D.C.: NASA. ISBN 0-16-050631-X. LCCN 00061677. NASA SP-2000-4029. Retrieved Juin 28, 2013. 
  2. "Apollo 8 Press Kit" (PDF) (Press kit). NASA. December 15, 1968. pp. 33–34. Release No. 68-208. Retrieved Juin 28, 2013.  – The spacecraft mass at launch includes the CM and SM, but excludes the 4,000 kilograms (8,900 lb) Launch Escape System (LES), which was discarded before reaching Earth orbit.
  3. "Apollo 8 Mission Report" (PDF). NASA. Februar 1969. p. A-14. MSC-PA-R-69-1. Retrieved Juin 28, 2013.  – The mass for LTA-B was less than that of a flying LM, because it was essentially a boilerplate decent stage. A fully loaded, flight-ready LM, like the Eagle from Apollo 11, had a mass of 15,095 kilograms (33,278 lb), including propellants.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "Apollo 8 Mission Report" (PDF). NASA. Februar 1969. p. 3-2. MSC-PA-R-69-1. Retrieved Juin 28, 2013. 
  5. "Apollo 8 Mission Report" (PDF). NASA. Februar 1969. p. 3-1. MSC-PA-R-69-1. Retrieved Mey 8, 2015.