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Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (Arabic: علي بن أﺑﻲ طالبtranslit.: ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib, [ʕaliː ibn ʔæbiː t̪ˤɑːlib]; 13th Rajab, 24 BH–21st Ramaḍān, 40 AH; approximately October 23, 598 or 600[1] or Mairch 17, 599 in Mecca – Januar 27, 661[2] in Kufa) wis the cousin an son-in-law o the Islamic prophet Muhammad, an ruled ower the Rashidun Caliphate frae 656 tae 661, an wis the first male convert tae Islam.[3][4] Sunni Muslims consider Ali the fowert an feenal o the Rashidun (richtly guidit Caliphs), while Shi'a Muslims regard Ali as the first Imam an consider him an his descendants the richtful successors tae Muhammad, aw o which are members o the Ahl al-Bayt, the hoosehauld o Muhammad. This disagreement split the Ummah (Muslim community) intae the Sunni an Shi'a branches.[5]

Biography[eedit | eedit soorce]

Muslim sources, especially Shi'a anes, state that durin Muhammad's time, Ali wis the anerlie body born in the Kaaba sanctuary in Mecca, the holiest place in Islam.[5] His faither wis Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib an his mither wis Fatima bint Asad,[5] but he wis raised in the hoosehauld o Muhammad, who hissel wis raised bi Abu Talib, Muhammad's uncle. When Muhammad reportit receivin a divine revelation, Ali wis the first male tae accept his message, dedicatin his life tae the cause of Islam.[2][6][7][8]

Ali migratit tae Medina shortly efter Muhammad did. Ance there Muhammad tauld Ali that God haed ordered Muhammad tae give his dochter, Fatimah, tae Ali in marriage.[5] For the ten years that Muhammad led the community in Medina, Ali wis extremely active in his service, leadin pairties o warriors on battles, an carryin messages an orders. Ali teuk pairt in the early caravan raids frae Mecca an later in amaist aw the battles fought bi the nascent Muslim community.

Ali wis appointit Caliph bi the Companions o Muhammad (the Sahaba) in Medina efter the assassination o the third caliph, Uthman ibn Affan.[9][10] He encoontered defiance an ceevil war durin his reign. In 661, Ali wis attacked ane fore-nuin while worshippin in the mosque o Kufa, an dee'd a few days later.[11][12][13]

In Muslim cultur, Ali is respectit for his courage, knowledge, belief, honesty, unbendin devotion tae Islam, deep loyalty tae Muhammad, equal treatment o aw Muslims an generosity in forgivin his defeatit enemies, an therefore is central tae meestical traditions in Islam such as Sufism. Ali retains his stature as an authority on Qur'anic exegesis, Islamic jurisprudence an releegious thought.[14] Ali haulds a heich position in amaist aw Sufi orders which trace their lineage through him tae Muhammad. Ali's influence haes been important throughout Islamic history.[5]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Ahmed 2005, p. 234
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Ali ibn Abutalib". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2010-12-16. 
  3. Kelen 2001, p. 29
  4. Watt 1953, p. xii
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. "Ali". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 2007-10-12. 
  6. Tabatabaei 1979, p. 11
  7. Ashraf 2005, p. 14
  8. Diana, Steigerwald. "Ali ibn Abu Talib". Encyclopaedia of Islam and the Muslim world; vol.1. MacMillan. ISBN 0028656040. 
  9. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Ashraf_.282005.29.2C_pp._119-120
  10. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Madelung_.281997.29.2C_pp._141-145
  11. Lapidus 2002, p. 47
  12. Holt, Lambton & Lewis 1970, pp. 70–72
  13. Tabatabaei 1979, pp. 50–75 and 192
  14. Madelung 1997, p. 309 and 310

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