Ali

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`Alî ibn Abî Ṭâlib
1st Shia Imam
4t Caliph o Rashidun Caliphate
Rashidun Caliph in Kufa

Al-Murtaza (Chosen Ane)

Amir Al-Mu'mineen (Commander o the Faithfu)
Rashidun Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib - علي بن أبي طالب.svg
Calligraphic representation o Ali
Islamic Caliphate during his reign
Mohammad adil rais-Caliph Ali's empire 661.PNG
Fowert richtly guided Caliph (Sunni Islam's view), Successor o Muhammad (Shi'ah Islam's view) an Amir al-Mu'minin
("Commander o the Faithfu")
Full name Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib
(علي بن أبي طالب)
Reign 656–661
Born 13t Rajab 23 BH
600[1][2] or Sep. 20, 601[3] or Jul. 17, 607[4] CE
Birthplace Kaaba,[1] Mecca, Arabie
Died 21st Ramadan ul Mubarak 40 AH
≈ Jan. 27, 661 CE[2][5]
Daithplace Great Mosque o Kufa, Kufa, Iraq
Place o burial Imam Ali Mosque, Najaf, Iraq
Predecessor Uthman Ibn Affan
(As Fowerth Sunni Caliph)
• Muhammad
(As First Shia Imam)
Successor Hasan
(As Second Shia Imam)
• Hasan ibn Ali
(As Fift Sunni Caliph),
Faither Abu Talib ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib
Mither Fatima bint Asad
Brither(s) Ja`far ibn Abī Tālib
Aqeel ibn Abi Talib
• Talib ibn Abu Talib
Sister(s) Fakhitah bint Abi Talib
Jumanah bint Abi Talib
Spoose(s) Fatimah
Umamah bint Zainab
Umm ul-Banin
• Leila bint Masoud
Asma bint Umays
Khawlah bint Ja'far
• Al Sahba'bint Rabi'ah
Son(s) Muhsin ibn Ali
Hassan ibn Ali
Husayn ibn Ali
Hilal ibn Ali
Al-Abbas ibn Ali
• Abdullah ibn Ali
• Jafar ibn Ali
• Uthman ibn Ali
• Ubaid Allah bin Ali
• Abi Bakr bin Ali
Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah
• Umar bin Ali
Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr (adopted)
Dauchter(s) Zaynab bint Ali
Umm Kulthum bint Ali
Ruqayyah bint Ali
Descendants Seyyed, Alavi
Ither tetles Bab-e-Madinatul-ilm
("The duir tae the ceety o Knawledge")
Abu Turab
("Faither o the Sile")
Murtadha
("Ane Who Is Chosen an Contentit")
Asadullah
("Lion o God")
Haydar
("Braveheart")

Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (Arabic: علي بن أﺑﻲ طالبtranslit.: ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib, [ʕaliː ibn ʔæbiː t̪ˤɑːlib]; 13th Rajab, 24 BH–21st Ramaḍān, 40 AH; approximately October 23, 598 or 600[6] or Mairch 17, 599 in Mecca – Januar 27, 661[2] in Kufa) wis the cousin an son-in-law o the Islamic prophet Muhammad, an ruled ower the Rashidun Caliphate frae 656 tae 661, an wis the first male convert tae Islam.[7][8] Sunni Muslims consider Ali the fowert an feenal o the Rashidun (richtly guidit Caliphs), while Shi'a Muslims regard Ali as the first Imam an consider him an his descendants the richtful successors tae Muhammad, aw o which are members o the Ahl al-Bayt, the hoosehauld o Muhammad. This disagreement split the Ummah (Muslim community) intae the Sunni an Shi'a branches.[1]

Biography[eedit | eedit soorce]

Muslim sources, especially Shi'a anes, state that durin Muhammad's time, Ali wis the anerlie body born in the Kaaba sanctuary in Mecca, the holiest place in Islam.[1] His faither wis Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib an his mither wis Fatima bint Asad,[1] but he wis raised in the hoosehauld o Muhammad, who hissel wis raised bi Abu Talib, Muhammad's uncle. When Muhammad reportit receivin a divine revelation, Ali wis the first male tae accept his message, dedicatin his life tae the cause of Islam.[2][9][10][11]

Ali migratit tae Medina shortly efter Muhammad did. Ance there Muhammad tauld Ali that God haed ordered Muhammad tae give his dochter, Fatimah, tae Ali in marriage.[1] For the ten years that Muhammad led the community in Medina, Ali wis extremely active in his service, leadin pairties o warriors on battles, an carryin messages an orders. Ali teuk pairt in the early caravan raids frae Mecca an later in amaist aw the battles fought bi the nascent Muslim community.

Ali wis appointit Caliph bi the Companions o Muhammad (the Sahaba) in Medina efter the assassination o the third caliph, Uthman ibn Affan.[12][13] He encoontered defiance an ceevil war durin his reign. In 661, Ali wis attacked ane fore-nuin while worshippin in the mosque o Kufa, an dee'd a few days later.[14][15][16]

In Muslim cultur, Ali is respectit for his courage, knowledge, belief, honesty, unbendin devotion tae Islam, deep loyalty tae Muhammad, equal treatment o aw Muslims an generosity in forgivin his defeatit enemies, an therefore is central tae meestical traditions in Islam such as Sufism. Ali retains his stature as an authority on Qur'anic exegesis, Islamic jurisprudence an releegious thought.[17] Ali haulds a heich position in amaist aw Sufi orders which trace their lineage through him tae Muhammad. Ali's influence haes been important throughout Islamic history.[1]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. "Ali". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 2007-10-12. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 "Ali ibn Abutalib". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2010-12-16. 
  3. Al-Haj Salmin, Muhammad Ali. Ali The Caliph. p. 3 & 6. Qassim Ali Jairazbhoy Publishers; 1931 1st Edition.
  4. Abu Mikhnaf, Lut bin Yahya. Kitab Maqtal Ali (144 AH / 761 CE). Hashami, Ibrahim bin Sulayman. Kitab Maqtal Amir Al-Muminin (183 AH / 799 CE). Al-Kalbi, Hisham ibn Muhammad. Maqtal Amir ul-Muminin (201 AH / 817 CE). Reference: I.M.A.M. (Imam Mahdi Assoc. of Marjaeya) Publication (Muharram-Safar 1427 AH), Vol. 2-Issue 5.
  5. Shad, Abdur Rahman. Ali Al-Murtaza. Kazi Publications; 1978 1st Edition. Mohiyuddin, Dr. Ata. Ali The Superman. Sh. Muhammad Ashraf Publishers; 1980 1st Edition. Lalljee, Yousuf N. Ali The Magnificent. Ansariyan Publications; Jan 1981 1st Edition.
  6. Ahmed 2005, p. 234
  7. Kelen 2001, p. 29
  8. Watt 1953, p. xii
  9. Tabatabaei 1979, p. 11
  10. Ashraf 2005, p. 14
  11. Diana, Steigerwald. "Ali ibn Abu Talib". Encyclopaedia of Islam and the Muslim world; vol.1. MacMillan. ISBN 0028656040. 
  12. Ashraf 2005, p. 119 and 120
  13. Madelung 1997, pp. 141–145
  14. Lapidus 2002, p. 47
  15. Holt, Lambton & Lewis 1970, pp. 70–72
  16. Tabatabaei 1979, pp. 50–75 and 192
  17. Madelung 1997, p. 309 and 310

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]