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Ali ibn Abi Talib
Arabic calligrafie o the name o Ali
4t Caliph o the Rashidun Caliphate
(Sunni View)
PredecessorUthman ibn Affan
SuccessorHasan ibn Ali
1st Imam o Shia Islam
(Twelver, Zaydi, an Nizari Ismaili view)
SuccessorHasan ibn Ali (2nt Imam)
Asās/Wāsih o Shia Islam
(Musta'li Ismaili view)
SuccessorHasan ibn Ali (1st Imam)
Born15 September 601 (13 Rajab 21 BH in the auncient Arabic calendar)[1][2][3]
Ka'bah, Mecca, Hijaz, Arabian Peninsula[1][4]
Dee'd29 Januar 661 (21 Ramadan AH 40)
(aged 59)[2][3][5][6]
Kufa, Mesopotamie, Rashidun Empire killer Abdur Rahman ibne Muljim
BuirialImam Ali Mosque, Najaf, Iraq
Full name
'Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib Arabic: عَلِي ابْن أَبِي طَالِب
TribeQuraysh (Banu Hashim)
FaitherAbu Talib ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib
MitherFatimah bint Asad
ReleegionHanif (as o 610)/Islam

Ali[a] (Arabic: عَلِي‎, romanised: ʿAlī, pronounced [ʕaliː]; 601 – 29 Januar 661)[2][3] wis the cuisin an son-in-law o the Islamic prophet Muhammad, an ruled ower the Rashidun Caliphate frae 656 tae 661, an wis the first male convert tae Islam.[7][8] Sunni Muslims consider Ali the fowert an feenal o the Rashidun (richtly guidit Caliphs), while Shi'a Muslims regaird Ali as the first Imam an consider him an his descendants the richtful successors tae Muhammad, aw o which are members o the Ahl al-Bayt, the hoosehauld o Muhammad. This disagreement split the Ummah (Muslim community) intae the Sunni an Shi'a branches.[1]

Biography[eedit | eedit soorce]

Muslim soorces, especially Shi'a anes, state that durin Muhammad's time, Ali wis the anerlie body born in the Kaaba sanctuary in Mecca, the holiest place in Islam.[1] His faither wis Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib an his mither wis Fatima bint Asad,[1] but he wis raised in the hoosehauld o Muhammad, who hissel wis raised bi Abu Talib, Muhammad's uncle. When Muhammad reportit receivin a divine revelation, Ali wis the first male tae accept his message, dedicatin his life tae the cause o Islam.[2][9][10][11]

Ali migratit tae Medina shortly efter Muhammad did. Ance thare Muhammad tauld Ali that God haed ordered Muhammad tae gie his dochter, Fatimah, tae Ali in marriage.[1] For the ten years that Muhammad led the community in Medina, Ali wis extremely active in his service, leadin pairties o warriors on battles, an carryin messages an orders. Ali teuk pairt in the early caravan raids frae Mecca an later in amaist aw the battles focht bi the nascent Muslim community.

Ali wis appointit Caliph bi the Companions o Muhammad (the Sahaba) in Medina efter the assassination o the third caliph, Uthman ibn Affan.[12][13] He encoontered defiance an ceevil war durin his reign. In 661, Ali wis attacked ane fore-nuin while worshippin in the mosque o Kufa, an dee'd a few days later.[14][15][16]

In Muslim cultur, Ali is respectit for his courage, knowledge, belief, honesty, unbendin devotion tae Islam, deep lealtie tae Muhammad, equal treatment o aw Muslims an generosity in forgivin his defeatit enemies, an therefore is central tae meestical tradeetions in Islam sic as Sufism. Ali retains his stature as an authority on Qur'anic exegesis, Islamic jurisprudence an releegious thocht.[17] Ali haulds a heich poseetion in amaist aw Sufi orders which trace thair lineage throu him tae Muhammad. Ali's influence haes been important throughout Islamic history.[1]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Full name: Ali ibn Abi Talib (Arabic: عَلِي ابْن أَبِي طَالِب‎, romanised: ʿAlī bin Abī Ṭālib), Arabic pronunciation: [ʕaliː bɪn ʔabiː t̪ˤaːlɪb].

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. a b c d e f g h Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. "Ali". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 12 October 2007.
  2. a b c d "Alī ibn Abu Talib". Encyclopædia Iranica. Archived frae the original on Apryle 29, 2011. Retrieved December 16, 2010.
  3. a b c Al-Islam. "The Life of the Commander of the Faithful Ali Ibn Abu Talib (as)". Retrieved 6 December 2015.
  4. Rahim, Husein A.; Sheriff, Ali Mohamedjaffer (1993). Guidance From Qur'an (in Inglis). Khoja Shia Ithna-asheri Supreme Council. Retrieved 11 Apryle 2017.
  5. Shad, Abdur Rahman. Ali Al-Murtaza. Kazi Publications; 1978 1st Edition. Mohiyuddin, Dr. Ata. Ali The Superman. Sh. Muhammad Ashraf Publishers; 1980 1st Edition. Lalljee, Yousuf N. Ali The Magnificent. Ansariyan Publications; January 1981 1st Edition.
  6. Sallaabee, Ali Muhammad. Ali ibn Abi Talib (volume 2). p. 621. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
  7. Kelen 2001, p. 29
  8. Watt 1953, p. xii
  9. Tabatabaei 1979, p. 11
  10. Ashraf 2005, p. 14
  11. Diana, Steigerwald. "Ali ibn Abu Talib". Encyclopaedia of Islam and the Muslim world; vol.1. MacMillan. ISBN 0028656040.
  12. Ashraf 2005, p. 119 and 120
  13. Madelung 1997, pp. 141–145
  14. Lapidus 2002, p. 47
  15. Holt, Lambton & Lewis 1970, pp. 70–72
  16. Tabatabaei 1979, pp. 50–75 and 192
  17. Madelung 1997, p. 309 and 310

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]