Aerospace Force o the Islamic Revolutionary Gaird Corps

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The Aerospace Force of the Airmy of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution (AFAGIR), kent in the Canadae an the Unitit States, Republic o Ireland an the Unitit Kinrick as the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps Aerospace Force (IRGC AF)[citation needit], is the air force within the Islamic Revolutionary Gaird Corps (IRGC, Islamic Revolutionary Gairds). Parallel tae the regular Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force (IRIAF), the regular air brainch of the Airmed Forces o the Islamic Republic o Iran (AFIRI), the Revolutionary Guards' haeve thair ain air force. It shares facilities wi the IRIAF.

Its personnel size is unkent according tae the Congressional Research Service.[1]

Aviation forces[eedit | eedit soorce]

A Shahed 285 helicopter.

Most USA public soorces disagree and argue on which aircraft are operated bi the AFAGIR.

Great Prophet Wargame by tasnimnews 01.jpg

The Washington Institute for Near East Policy said in 2005 that "[t]he backbone of the IRGCAF consists of ten Su-25 Frogfoot attack aircraft (including seven flown from Iraq to Iran during the 1991 Gulf War, kept airworthy with the help of Georgian technicians) and around forty EMB-312 Tucanos". The Washington Institute an aw said that the IRGCAF maintained thirty Y-12 and Dassault Falcon 20 licht transports, as well as MFI-17 Mushshak and Super Mushshak trainers and locally biggit Ababil and Mohajer reconnaissance unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).[2]

The AFAGIR an aw operates a sizable rotary-wing force consisting of aroond twinty Mi-171 helicopters for transport and armed assault roles, an a lairge transport force oot of Shiraz, equipped wi aroond fifteen ex-Iraqi Il-76s (oreeginally operated bi the IRIAF) and twal An-74TK-200 transports.[3] Scramble backs up this picture in general, reporting An-74s, An-14s, and Su-25Ks at Tehran Mehrabad, Chengdu F-7Ms at Zahedan (while saying that MFI-17s war eften reportit at Zahedan incorrectly), and Il-76 AEW variants at Shiraz Shahid Dastghaib International Airport, while saying that thay might be based at Mehrabad. Scramble an aw said that an unkent nummer of "new" Su-25s war delivered in 2003.[4]

Houaniver, ither, later writings mak no mention of Su-25s or Il-76s. Anthony Cordesman of the Center for Strategic and International Studies, writing in August 2007, said anly the AFAGIR "may operate Iran's 10 EMB-312 Tucanos", and that it "seems to operate many of Iran's 45 PC-7 training aircraft" as well as Pakistani-biggit training aircraft at a schuil near Mushshak, "but this school may be run by the regular air force". He an aw specifically said that reports of the Revolutionary Guards operating F-7s did nae seem tae be correct.[5]

Cordesman an aw noted claims of the AFAGIR building gliders for uise in unconventional warfare, saying that thay wad be unsuitable delivery platforms, but coud at least cairy a smaw nummer of wappens. Houiver the attached reference wis a 1996 Reuters report, makin the soorces for sic assertions extremely thin.[6] Finally, the IISS Military Balance 2007 maks no mention of aircraft at aw, referring anly tae the Shahab 1, 2, an 3 missiles.[7]

On October 2009 It wis annoonced that its name haes been changed frae IRGC Air Force tae IRGC Aerospace Force.[8][9][10]

In Februar 2014 Janes' annoonced that the Barani missile seestem haed been testit.[11] This seestem is a laser-guided air-to-surface missile which releases submunitions: "new generation of long-range ballistic missiles carrying multiple re-entry vehicle MIRV payloads".[11] The UN Panel of Experts identified it as a variant of the Shahab (Ghadr 1) and questioned its alleged multiple re- entry vehicle capability, suggestin instead that it carried sub-munitions.[12]

The Bina missile, which can be carried aloft and is able tae be grund-launched frae a rail car, wis an aw revealed at the time.[11]

Current aircraft[eedit | eedit soorce]

Aircraft Type In Service[13] Notes Image
Close air support
Sukhoi Su-25 Attack aircraft On 25 Januar 1991, seiven Iraqi Air Force Su-25s fled frae Iraq and landed in Iran during Gulf War Su-25Ub.JPG
Embraer EMB 312 Tucano Trainer
Licht attack
15[14] Iran Revolutionary Guard Air Force Embraer EMB-312 Tucano.jpg
Toofan Attack helicopter 1+ بالگرد توفان 2.jpg
Ilyushin Il-76TD Strategic airlift 3[13] Adapted for aerial firefighting, as well as transport roles Watertanker IL-76D of IRGC.jpg
Antonov An-74TK-200 Tactical airlift 9 An An-74TK-200 of IRGC.jpg
Dassault Falcon 20F Utility transport 1 Pakistan Air Force No 24 Blinders Squadron Falcon DA-20 left side1.jpg
Harbin Y-12-II Transport 9[14] Iran - Revolutionary Guard Air Force Harbin Y12-II.jpg
Transport Helicopter
Mil Mi-17 Transport helicopter 38[13] A Mi-17 helicopter of IRGC Air Force.jpg
Unmanned aerial vehicle
Ababil Reconnaissance, combat, anti-radar operations Ababil.png
Mohajer I/II/III/VI Strategic reconnaissance Qods Mohajer-6 (1).png
Karrar Unmanned combat aerial vehicle 180x180px
Shahed 129 Unmanned combat aerial vehicle Shahed 129 (4).jpg
Yasir (copy of ScanEagle) Unmanned aerial vehicle Yasir (6).jpg
Saegheh Unmanned aerial vehicle Saegheh (4).jpg

Missile forces[eedit | eedit soorce]

The AFAGIR controls Iran's strategic missile forces.[15] On August 2013, Ahmad Vahidi. umwhile defence meenister of Iran said that his kintra is ranked saxt in the warld in missile production.[16] It is claimed to operate several thoosand short- and medium-range mobile ballistic missiles, includin the Shahab-3/3B wi a range of up to 2,100 kilometers, which is the mainstay of Iran’s strategic deterrent. This puts even NATO members Greece, Bulgaria and Romanie within striking range, if fired frae Western Iran. If Iran ever produces nuclear wappens, the AFAGIR is likely to control them. Iran says that it haes no intention of producin nuclear wappens.

Despite earlier roots, the Iranian military industry stairtit the missile development program in earnest during Iran's lang and costly war wi Iraq. At times, throughout the war Iran foond that it coud nae strike certaint Iraqi facilities or targets wi its ain forces. This resulted in an ambitious missile development programme that is still continuing. The day, Iran is developin space launch vehicles and sophisticated medium-range ballistic missiles. Iran's ballistic missiles possess the capability to deliver a variety of conventional heich explosive and submunition, as well as MIRVs. Iran's achievements in missile development haes been cried "impressive" bi IISS.[17]

On May 2013 Iran's Ministry of Defence and Logistics delivered a massive nummer of missile TELs to IRGC AF,[18] “Iranian television footage showed at least 26 TELs lined up in two rows for the event, which marked their purported delivery to the Islamic Revolution Guards Corps (IRGC) Aerospace Force, which operates the country’s ballistic missiles”, accordin tae the report bi IHS Jane's.[19][20]

Ony Iranian lang-range intermediate-range ballistic missile or intercontinental ballistic missile wad require an extraordinarily effective guidance seestem and level of reliability to hae ony real lethality wi conventional warheads, even if it coud be equipped wi a functional GPS guidance platform. It wad probably require nuclear warheads in order to compensate for critical problems in accuracy, reliability, and warhead lethality.[12]

Short range missiles[eedit | eedit soorce]

Solid fuel program[eedit | eedit soorce]

The foundations for this war laid wi the Oghab and Shahin-II missiles. Thir wad lead the wey for a nummer of ither rocket artillery seestems includin Fajr, Nazeat, and Zelzal. The initial effort in this aurie relied heavily on technical help frae the People's Republic of China, Republic o Cuba, Lao Fowk's Democratic Republic, Socialist Republic o Vietnam an the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the form of assembly and manufacturing contracts during 1991 and 1992. Iran wis quick tae surpass the Cheenese, Cuban, Laotian, Vietnamese an North Korean level of assistance and became self-sufficient.

Bina[eedit | eedit soorce]
Main airticle: Bina (missile)

Bina is an laser guided dual-capability short-range surface-tae-surface and air-tae-surface missile. It appears tae be an AGM-65 Maverick air-tas-grund missile wi a semi-active laser (SAL) seeker fitted tae its neb.[11] Brigadier General Hossein Dehqan said the ballistic missile haed radar-evading capabilities. "The new generation of long-range ground-to-ground ballistic missile with a fragmentation warhead and the laser-guided air-to-surface and surface-to-surface missile dubbed Bina (Insightful) have been successfully test-fired. The Bina missile is capable of striking important targets such as bridges, tanks and enemy command centres with great precision."[21]

Liquid fuel program[eedit | eedit soorce]

Efter the war, Iran's experience of liquid fuel missiles haed purely focused on the reverse engineering of Scud-B missiles. Houiver, wi the post war reorganisation the focus of the effort quickly changed and focused on assembly and maintenance. A domestic version of the Scud-B, kent as Shahab-1, wis developed and manufactured. This led to its successor the Shahab-2, a variant of the Scud-C wi a range of 500 to 700 km,[22] and finally the Shahab-3.

Syne the end of the war, Iran haes consistently attempted to recruit foreign help, as well as its lairge and heichly qualified expatriate population, intae its missile program. Iranian expatriates who left wi the revolution hae been slow to return, but mony are nou daein sae and sicweys heralding a new age for Iran's missile development programme wi thair tremendous wealth of technical experience.[citation needit]

Other missile systems[eedit | eedit soorce]

Iran haes an arsenal of short-range, liquid-fueled missiles includin the Scud B and Scud C, an is nou able to produce SCUD teep missiles on its ain, sic as the R-17E, a variant of the Roushie Scud B. The Aerospace Industries Organization, a subsidiary of Iran's Ministry of Defence, supports the manufacturing process bi engaging in SCUD missile restoration. Its short-range missile inventory an aw includes solit-fueled missiles, sic as the Tondar-69 an the Fateh-110, an awso, the Cheenese, DF-11, an North Korean KN-02.

An aw, Iranian artillery rockets include the Samid, the Shahin-II Artillery Rocket, the Naze'at Artillery Rocket, the Zelzal-1, the Zelzal-2 the Zelzal-3, the Zelzal-4, the Zelzal-110 an the Zelzal-313.

Longer range ballistic missiles (1000 km plus)[eedit | eedit soorce]

As o 2009, Iran haes an active interest in developin, acquiring, an deploying a broad range of ballistic missiles, as well as developin a space launch capability. In mid-Julie 2008, Iran launched a nummer of ballistic missiles during military exercises, reportedly includin the medium-range Shahab-3. Iran annoonced ither missile and space launch tests in August and November 2008. In Februar 2009, Iran annoonced it launched a satellite intae orbit and “officially achieved a presence in space.”[23]

Fajr-3 MIRV[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main airticle: Fajr-3 (missile)

The Fajr-3 is currently Iran's maist advanced ballistic missile. It is a domestically-developed liquid fuel missile wi an unkent range. What maks it Iran's maist advanced rocket is that the Iranian govrenment says it haes multiple independently targeted reentry vehicles (MIRV) capabilities. Its MIRV capability mey gie it the ability of avoiding anti-missile surface-tae-air missiles (SAMs). The missile wis last launched during Holy Prophet wargames, which wis the IRGC's lairgest naval war gemmes ever. The Fajr-3 an the Fajr-3 artillery rocket are different seestems.

Shahab-3[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main airticle: Shahab-3

Shahab-3 wis the first Intermediate-range ballistic missile that wis biggit bi Iran's military. Its first model, an aw kent as Shahab-3A haes a range of 1,300 km (810 mi). Suin efter Iran came wi a new model cried Shahab-3B, which haes a range of 2,000 km (1,200 mi), and can cairy a heavier warhead. Makin this missile wis a major step in Iran's missile industry, an it opened the wey to langer-range missiles. Shahab-3D, which followed the Shahab-3C, is Iran's latest Shahab model. A 2,000-kilometre (1,200 mi) range includin Roushie (as far as Moscow), Ukraine, pairts of Hungary, Serbia, Greece, Egyp, Arabia, pairts of Indie and Cheenae, as well as countries closer to Iran.

Jane's Information Group said in 2006 that Iran haed sax operational Shahab-3 brigades, the first of which wis established in Julie 2003. Thay said that the sax brigades war mainly equipped wi standard variants, but wi others describit as enhanced Shahab-3 variants, wi ranges of 1,300, 1,500, an 2,000 km (810, 930, an 1,240 mi), respectively.[24] Anthony Cordesman at the Center for Strategic and International Studies houiver said anly in August 2007 that 'the air force of the IRGC is believed to operate Iran’s three Shahab-3 intermediate-range ballistic missiles units' while notin that thair actual operational status remains uncertain.[5]

Ghadr-110[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main airticle: Ghadr-110

The Ghadr-110 is a medium-range ballistic missile designed and developed bi Iran. The missile haes a range of 1,800[25] to 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi)[26] and as sic is the Iranian missile wi the langest range.

It is believed tae be an improved version of the Shahab-3, an aw kent as the Ghadr-101. It haes a liquid-fuel first stage and a solit-fuel seicont stage, which allows it tae haeve a range of 2,000 km.[26] It haes a higher maneuverability than the Shahab-3 and a setup time of 30 minutes which is shorter than that of the Shahab-3.

Ashoura[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main airticle: Ashoura missile

In November 2007, Iranian Defence Meenister Mostafa Mohammad-Najjar annoonced that Iran haed biggit a new missile wi a range of 2,000 km (1,200 mi), the Ashoura missile. He did nae say how the missile differed frae the Shahab-3, which haes a range of 2,100 km (1,300 mi).

He told the gathering Basij militia during the manoeuvers thay war holding that same week that the "construction of the Ashoura missile, with the range of 2,000 km (1,200 mi), is among the accomplishments of the Defence Ministry".[27]

Accordin to Jane's Defence Weekly,[28] the Ashoura represents a major breakthrough in Iranian missile technology. It is the first twa-stage MRBM uisin solit-fueled rocket motors instead of the existin liquid-fueled technology uised on the Shahab. This wad dramatically reduce the setup and deployment time for the missile and hence, shorten the amount of warning time for the enemy. Jane's noted that while the development parallels Pakistan's Shaheen-II MRBM thare is no evidence to suggest thare haed been ony prior technology exchange or wi its ither kent technology partners sic as North Korea, Vietnam, Cuba, Laos, or Cheenae.

Sejjil[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main airticle: Sejjil
Sejjil-2 (right) and Qiam (left) missiles

The new twa-stage solit-fuel missile haes a range of nearly 2,500 km (1,600 mi), it wis testit on 12 November 2008. An improved version, the Sejjil-2, wis testit on 20 May 2009. Improvements include better navigation seestem, better targeting seestem, mair payload, langer range, faster lift-off, langer storage time, quicker launch, an lawer detection possibilities.

Simorgh[eedit | eedit soorce]

US Director of Naitional Intelligence James Clapper told the Senate Armed Services Committee on 11 Februar 2014 that Iran wis expected to test "a missile system that could potentially have ICBM-class range", a possible reference tae the Simorgh satellite launch vehicle (SLV) on which Iran is wirkin.[11]

Emad[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main airticle: Emad (missile)

On October 10, 2015, Iran launched a new missile, the Emad. The Emad is capable of delivering a nuclear wappen and haes a range of 1700 km (ca 1000 miles), eneuch to reach aw of Israel and Saudi Arabia. It is considered to represent a great advance in accuracy, wi a guidance and control seestem in its neb cone that functions during reentry intae the atmosphere.[29]

As a consequence of Iran's nuclear deal (JCPOA), on 20 Julie 2015 the United Nations Security Council Resolution 2231 wis endorsed,[30] replacing the Resolution 1929, which "called upon" Iran "not to undertake any activity related to ballistic missiles designed to be capable of delivering nuclear weapons".[31] It haes been argued that the leid is nae a legal prohibition.[32] The U.S. ambassador tae the UN Samantha Power said that the Emad missile wis inherently capable of delivering a nuclear warhead which is therefore a violation. Houiver, Vitaly Churkin, Roushie's ambassador disputed this interpretation: "a call is different from a ban, so legally you cannot violate a call, you can comply with a call or you can ignore the call, but you cannot violate a call".[33] Iran's foreign meenister, Javad Zarif, responded bi saying that syne Iran daes nae possess nuclear wappens nor daes it ever intends in haein ane, it daes nae design its missiles (Emad) tae be capable of carrying something it daes nae hae.[34] Housomeiver, the testin of the Emad missile teuk place afore the adoption of the Resolution 2231. The US, Fraunce, Britain, Germany, Swaden, Turkey, an Australie asked the UN Security Council to investigate and tak appropriate action.[35]

Khorramshahr[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main airticle: Khorramshahr (missile)
Khorramshahr missile

Hoveyzeh[eedit | eedit soorce]

Hoveyzeh cruise missile

The Hoveyzeh Cruise Missile is an all-weather, surface-tae-surface cruise missile.[36][37][38] The Hoveyzeh is frae the Soumar faimily o cruise missiles.[39][40] The missile wis unveiled an put on display on February 2nt 2019 at an exhibition o defence achievements in Tehran during commemorations o the 40th anniversary o the 1979 Iranian Revolution.[41] The surface-tae-surface cruise missile is capable of low altitude flicht and haes a range of 1350 km[42][43], a maximum range haes nae yet been given[44].

It haes the ability tae strike grund targets with heich precision an accuracy. Its motor utilises a turbofan, it releases low heat signatures an the missile is equipped tae deal with the maist sophisticatit teeps of electronic warfare.[45][46][47][48]

Discussing the capabeelities of the missile, the Israeli militar intelligence wabsteid DEBKAfile states that there is: "...nae militar force in the warld haes so far found an effective means o intercepting cruise missiles afore thay strike, unless thay are short range." The missile is essentially immune tae ony sort of radar an missile defence seestems.[49][50]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Kenneth Katzman (6 February 2017), "Iran's Foreign and Defense Policies" (PDF), Congressional Research Service, Federation of American Scientists, p. 24, retrieved 1 March 2017
  2. Much of this section is a straight copyvio from Fariborz Haghshenass, Iran's Air Forces: Struggling to Maintain Readiness, WINEP PolicyWatch #1066, December 22, 2005.
  3. This sentence is a straight copyvio from Fariborz Haghshenass, Iran's Air Forces: Struggling to Maintain Readiness, WINEP PolicyWatch #1066, December 22, 2005
  4. "Archived copy". Archived frae the oreeginal on 2007-11-18. Retrieved 2007-11-12. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as teetle (link), accessed 11 October 2007. See also Liam Devlin & Tom Cooper, "Iran boosts Su-25 fleet", Jane's Defence Weekly, Vol. 43, Issue 38, 20 September 2006, p.18, which claims the IRGC AF now has 13 Su-25s in service.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Anthony Cordesman, Iran’s Revolutionary Guards, the Al Quds Force, and Other Intelligence and Paramilitary Forces, Center for Strategic and International Studies, August 16, 2007 (Rough Working Draft), page 6.
  6. Cordesman, August 2007; the Reuters report was cited as "Reuters, June 12, 1996, 17:33"'.
  7. IISS Military Balance 2007, p.225.
  8. "sepah restructuring". BBC persian.
  9. "Changing IRGC Air Force name to Aerospace Force". Newsiran. Archived frae the oreeginal on 2012-04-26. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  10. "Changing IRGC Air Force name to Aerospace Force". Farsnews.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 Jeremy Binnie (February 13, 2014). "Iran announces new missile tests". IHS Jane's. Retrieved February 26, 2014.
  12. 12.0 12.1
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 World Air Forces 2013 –, pg 18, December 11, 2012
  14. 14.0 14.1 Pike, John. "Iranian Air Force Equipment". Retrieved 11 June 2017.
  15. IISS Military Balance 2007, p.225.
  16. Former official cites weapons gains Washington Post
  17. "The Times | UK News, World News and Opinion". 2002-04-30. Retrieved 2012-02-17.
  18. وزارت دفاع صورت گرفت:تحویل انبوه سکوی پرتاب موشک‌های دوربرد زمین به زمین به نیروی هوافضای سپاه
  19. "Report: New Iranian Missile Launchers Could Overwhelm Israeli Defenses". USNI News. Retrieved 10 November 2014.
  20. "BREAKING NEWS Iran equips IRGC Aerospace Force with long-range missile launchers to hit israel". YouTube. Retrieved 10 November 2014.
  21. Reuters (10 February 2014). "Iran Test-Fires Long-Range Missile". Retrieved 11 June 2017 – via Huff Post.
  22. "Shahab-2 (Scud C)". Federation of American Scientists. Feb 2015. Archived frae the oreeginal on October 1, 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  23. Template:CRS
  24. This section was wholesaled copied from Jane's Information Group, [1], 2006
  25. "RFERL – Iranian military parade". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 10 November 2014.
  26. 26.0 26.1 "Fars News Agency". Archived frae the oreeginal on 6 February 2012. Retrieved 11 June 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  27. Swissinfo Iran says has built new long-range missile[deid airtin] November 27, 2007
  28. JDW: Iran adds Ashura to missile line-up November 26, 2007
  29. "Iran tests new precision-guided ballistic missile". Reuters. Oct 11, 2015. Archived frae the oreeginal on October 11, 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  30. "UN Documents for Iran". Retrieved 2016-04-19.
  31. United Nations Security Council (20 July 2015). "Resolution 2231" (PDF). UN Security Council Online Archives - 7488th meeting. UN S/RES/2231. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  32. "U.S. Looks to Sidestep U.N. on New Iran Sanctions". US News & World Report. 2016-03-29. Retrieved 2016-04-19.
  33. "U.S. vows to push for U.N. action on Iran despite Russian opposition". Reuters. 2016-03-14. Retrieved 2016-04-19.
  34. ANU TV (2016-03-15), Resolving crisis in the Middle East: an Iranian perspective, retrieved 2016-04-19
  35. "US, France ask UN to take action against Iran". The Statesman. Oct 22, 2015. Archived frae the oreeginal on October 23, 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  36. "Press TV article titled: "Iran unveils long-range Hoveyzeh cruise missile"". Press TV. February 2, 2019. Retrieved May 27, 2019.
  37. Staff, Toi (February 2, 2019). "Times of Israel article titled: "Iran says new cruise missile successfully fired on revolution's 40th anniversary"". Times of Israel. Retrieved May 27, 2019.
  38. "Iran unveils long-range Hoveyzeh cruise missile". Tehran Times. February 2, 2019. Retrieved May 27, 2019.
  39. "Press TV article titled: "Iran unveils long-range Hoveyzeh cruise missile"". Press TV. February 2, 2019. Retrieved May 27, 2019.
  40. Scarsi, Alice (February 3, 2019). "World War 3: Furious Iran taunts US with new cruise missile vowing to 'respond to threats'". Express UK. Retrieved May 27, 2019.
  41. "Press TV article titled: "Iran unveils long-range Hoveyzeh cruise missile"". Press TV. February 2, 2019. Retrieved May 27, 2019.
  42. "Press TV article titled: "Iran unveils long-range Hoveyzeh cruise missile"". Press TV. February 2, 2019. Retrieved May 27, 2019.
  43. Scarsi, Alice (February 3, 2019). "World War 3: Furious Iran taunts US with new cruise missile vowing to 'respond to threats'". Express UK. Retrieved May 27, 2019.
  44. "Iran unveils, successfully tests new long-range cruise missile (VIDEO)". RT (Russia Today). February 2, 2019. Retrieved May 27, 2019.
  45. "Press TV article titled: "Iran unveils long-range Hoveyzeh cruise missile"". Press TV. February 2, 2019. Retrieved May 27, 2019.
  46. Scarsi, Alice (February 3, 2019). "World War 3: Furious Iran taunts US with new cruise missile vowing to 'respond to threats'". Express UK. Retrieved May 27, 2019.
  47. Shalem, Diane (February 2, 2019). "Neither Israel nor US has the capacity to counter Iran's new cruise missile". DEBKAfile. Retrieved May 27, 2019.
  48. "Israeli Missile Defence Network Can't Stop Iran's New Cruise Missile – Report". Sputnik. February 4, 2019. Retrieved May 27, 2019.
  49. Shalem, Diane (February 2, 2019). "Neither Israel nor US has the capacity tae counter Iran's new cruise missile". DEBKAfile. Retrieved May 27, 2019.
  50. "Israeli Missile Defence Network Can't Stop Iran's New Cruise Missile – Report". Sputnik. February 4, 2019. Retrieved May 27, 2019.

Freemit Airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]