Acetone

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Acetone[1]
Full structural formula o acetone wi dimensions
Skeletal formula o acetone
Baw-an-stick model o acetone
Space-fillin model o acetone
Sample o acetone
Names
IUPAC name
Propanone
Seestematic IUPAC name
Propan-2-one[6]
Ither names
Dimethyl ketone[2]
β-Ketopropane[2]
Propanone[3]
2-Propanone[2]
Dimethyl formaldehyde[4]
Pyroacetic spirit (archaic)[5]
Identifiers
Jmol-3D images Image
3DMet {{{value}}}
Abbreviations DMK
Beilstein Reference 635680
ChEBI CHEBI:15347 YesY
ChEMBL ChEMBL14253 YesY
ChemSpider 175 YesY
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.602
EC Nummer 200-662-2
Gmelin Reference 1466
KEGG D02311 YesY
MeSH Acetone
RTECS nummer AL3150000
UNII 1364PS73AF YesY
UN nummer 1090
Properties
C3H6O
Molar mass 58.08 g·mol−1
Appearance colourless liquid
Odour pungent, irritatin, floral
Density 0.791 g cm−3
Meltin pynt −95 °C; −139 °F; 178 K
Bylin pynt 56 °C; 133 °F; 329 K
miscible
Solubility miscible in benzene, diethyl ether, methanol, chloroform, ethanol[7]
log P -0.042
Vapour pressur 9.39 kPa (0 °C)
30.6 kPa (25 °C)
374 kPa (100 °C)
2.8 MPa (200 °C)[8]
Acidity (pKa) 19.2
Basicity (pKb) -5.2 (for conjugate base)
Refractive index (nD) 1.359
Viscosity 0.36 (10 °C)
0.295 cP (25 °C)[7]
Structur
Coordination
geometry
Trigonal planar at C2
Molecular shape Dihedral at C2
Dipole moment 2.91 D
Thermochemistry
Speceefic heat capacity, C 125.45 J/mol·K
Staundart molar
entropy
So298
200.4 J/mol·K
Std enthalpy o
formation
ΔfHo298
-250.03-(−248.77) kJ/mol
Std enthalpy o
combustion
ΔcHo298
-1.772 MJ/mol
Hazards
GHS pictograms The flame pictogram in the Globally Harmonized Seestem o Classification an Labelling o Chemicals (GHS) The exclamation-mark pictogram in the Globally Harmonized Seestem o Classification an Labellin of Chemicals (GHS)
GHS signal wird DANGER
GHS hazard statements H225, H319, H336
GHS precautionary statements P210, P261, P305+351+338
EU clessification Flammable F Irritant Xi
R-phrases R11, R36, R66, R67
S-phrases (S2), S9, S16, S26
NFPA 704
Flammability code 3: Liquids an solids that can be ignited unner awmaist ae ambient temperature condeetions. Flash pynt atween 23 an 38 °C (73 an 100 °F). E.g., gasoline) Health code 1: Exposur would cause irritation but anly minor residual injury. E.g., turpentine Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even unner fire exposur condeetions, an is nae reactive wi watter. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash pynt −20 °C (−4 °F; 253 K)
Explosive leemits 2.6–12.8%[9]
Threshold Leemit Value 1185 mg/m3 (TWA), 2375 mg/m3 (STEL)
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
3000 mg/kg (oral, moose), 20000 mg/kg (dermal, rabbit), LC50 = 19000 mg/m3 (inhalation)
Relatit compoonds
Except whaur itherwise notit, data are gien for materials in thair staundart state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
YesY verify (whit is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Acetone (seestematically named propanone) is the organic compoond wi the formula (CH3)2CO. It is a colourless, volatile, flammable liquid, an is the seemplest ketone.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. The Merck Index, 15th Ed. (2013), p. 13, Acetone Monograph 65, O'Neil: The Royal Society of Chemistry.(subscription needit)
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "Acetone". NIST Chemistry WebBook. USA: National Institute of Standards and Technology. 
  3. Klamt, Andreas (2005). COSMO-RS: From Quantum Chemistry to Fluid Phase Thermodynamics and Drug Design. Elsevier. pp. 92–94. ISBN 978-0-444-51994-8. 
  4. Ash, Michael; Ash, Irene (2004). Handbook of preservatives. Synapse Information Resources, Inc. p. 369. ISBN 1-890595-66-7. 
  5. Myers, Richard L. (2007). The 100 Most Important Chemical Compounds: A Reference Guide. Greenwood. pp. 4–6. ISBN 978-0-313-08057-9. 
  6. "Acetone". PubChem. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 http://chemister.ru/Database/properties-en.php?dbid=1&id=27
  8. Acetone in Linstrom, P.J.; Mallard, W.G. (eds.) NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg MD. http://webbook.nist.gov (retrieved 2014-05-11)
  9. Working with modern hydrocarbon and oxygenated solvents: a guide to flammability American Chemistry Council Solvents Industry Group, pg. 7, January 2008