Zirconium

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Zirconium
40Zr
Ti

Zr

Hf
yttriumzirconiumniobium
Appearance
sillery white
General properties
Name, seembol, nummer zirconium, Zr, 40
Pronunciation /zərˈkniəm/ zər-KOH-ni-əm
Element category transeetion metal
Group, period, block 4, 5, d
Staundart atomic wicht 91.224
Electron confeeguration [Kr] 5s2 4d2
2, 8, 18, 10, 2
Electron shells of zirconium (2, 8, 18, 10, 2)
History
Discovery Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1789)
First isolation Jöns Jakob Berzelius (1824)
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 6.52 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 5.8 g·cm−3
Meltin pynt 2128 K, 1855 °C, 3371 °F
Boilin pynt 4682 K, 4409 °C, 7968 °F
Heat o fusion 14 kJ·mol−1
Heat o vaporization 573 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 25.36 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2639 2891 3197 3575 4053 4678
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3, 2, 1[1]
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 1.33 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 640.1 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1270 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2218 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 160 pm
Covalent radius 175±7 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure hexagonal close-packed
Zirconium has a hexagonal close-packed crystal structure
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic[2]
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 421 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity 22.6 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 5.7 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 3800 m·s−1
Young's modulus 88 GPa
Shear modulus 33 GPa
Bulk modulus 91.1 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.34
Mohs hairdness 5.0
Vickers hairdness 903 MPa
Brinell hairdness 650 MPa
CAS registry nummer 7440-67-7
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes o zirconium
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
88Zr syn 83.4 d ε - 88Y
γ 0.392D -
89Zr syn 78.4 h ε - 89Y
β+ 0.902 89Y
γ 0.909D -
90Zr 51.45% 90Zr is stable wi 50 neutrons
91Zr 11.22% 91Zr is stable wi 51 neutrons
92Zr 17.15% 92Zr is stable wi 52 neutrons
93Zr trace 1.53×106 y β 0.060 93Nb
94Zr 17.38% >1.1×1017 y (ββ) 1.144 94Mo
96Zr 2.8% 2.0×1019 y[3] ββ 3.348 96Mo
Decay modes in parentheses are predictit, but hae nae yet been observed
· r

Zirconium is a chemical element wi the seembol Zr, atomic nummer 40 an atomic mass o 91.224. The name o zirconium is taken frae the mineral zircon, the maist important soorce o zirconium, an frae the Persian wird "zargun - زرگون", meanin "gold colored".[4] It is a lustrous, grey-white, strang transeetion metal that resembles titanium. Zirconium is mainly uised as a refractory an opacifier, altho it is uised in smaa amoonts as an alloyin agent for its strang resistance tae corrosion. Zirconium forms a variety o inorganic an organometallic compoonds such as zirconium dioxide an zirconocene dichloride, respectively. Five isotopes occur naiturally, three o which are stable. Zirconium compoonds hae na kent biological role.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Zirconium: zirconium(I) fluoride compound data". OpenMOPAC.net. Retrieved 2007-12-10. 
  2. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  3. Pritychenko, Boris; V. Tretyak. "Adopted Double Beta Decay Data". National Nuclear Data Center. Retrieved 2008-02-11. 
  4. Harper, Douglas. "zircon". Online Etymology Dictionary.