Ytterbium

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Ytterbium
70Yb
-

Yb

No
thuliumytterbiumlutetium
Appearance
sillery white
General properties
Name, seembol, nummer ytterbium, Yb, 70
Pronunciation /ɨˈtɜrbiəm/ i-TUR-bee-əm
Element category lanthanide
Group, period, block n/a, 6, f
Staundart atomic wicht 173.054(5)
Electron confeeguration [Xe] 4f14 6s2
2, 8, 18, 32, 8, 2
Electron shells of ytterbium (2, 8, 18, 32, 8, 2)
History
Namin efter Ytterby (Swaden), whaur it wis mined
Discovery Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac (1878)
First isolation Georges Urbain (1907)
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 6.90 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 6.21 g·cm−3
Meltin pynt 1097 K, 824 °C, 1515 °F
Boilin pynt 1469 K, 1196 °C, 2185 °F
Heat o fusion 7.66 kJ·mol−1
Heat o vaporization 159 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 26.74 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 736 813 910 1047 (1266) (1465)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 3, 2, 1

(basic oxide)

Electronegativity  ? 1.1 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 603.4 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1174.8 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2417 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 176 pm
Covalent radius 187±8 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure face-centered cubic
Ytterbium has a face-centered cubic crystal structure
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic
Electrical resistivity (r.t.) (β, poly) 0.250 µΩ·m
Thermal conductivity 38.5 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (r.t.) (β, poly) 26.3 µm/(m·K)
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 1590 m·s−1
Young's modulus (β form) 23.9 GPa
Shear modulus (β form) 9.9 GPa
Bulk modulus (β form) 30.5 GPa
Poisson ratio (β form) 0.207
Vickers hairdness 206 MPa
Brinell hairdness 343 MPa
CAS registry nummer 7440-64-4
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes o ytterbium
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
166Yb syn 56.7 h ε 0.304 166Tm
168Yb 0.13% >1.3×1014 y (α) 1.9508 164Er
(β+β+) 1.4221 168Er
169Yb syn 32.026 d ε 0.909 169Tm
170Yb 3.04% - (α) 1.7376 166Er
171Yb 14.28% - (α) 1.5589 167Er
172Yb 21.83% - (α) 1.3103 168Er
173Yb 16.13% - (α) 0.9459 169Er
174Yb 31.83% - (α) 0.7401 170Er
175Yb syn 4.185 d β 0.470 175Lu
176Yb 12.76% >1.6×1017 y (α) 0.570 172Er
(ββ) 1.083 176Hf
177Yb syn 1.911 h β 1.399 177Lu
Decay modes in parentheses are predictit, but hae nae yet been observed
· r

Ytterbium is a chemical element wi seembol Yb an atomic nummer 70. It is the fowerteent an penultimate element in the lanthanide series, or last element in the f-block, which is the basis o the relative stability o the +2 oxidation state. However, lik the ither lanthanides, the maist common oxidation state is +3, seen in its oxide, halides an ither compounds. In aqueous solution, lik compoonds o ither late lanthanides, soluble ytterbium compoonds furm complexes wi nine watter molecules. Acause o its closed-shell electron configuration, its density an meltin an boilin points differ frae those o the ither lanthanides.

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