Vanadium

Frae Wikipedia
Lowp tae: navigation, rake
Vanadium
23V
-

V

Nb
titaniumvanadiumchromium
Appearance
blue-siller-grey metal
General properties
Name, seembol, nummer vanadium, V, 23
Pronunciation /vəˈndiəm/
və-NAY-dee-əm
Element category transeetion metal
Group, period, block 5, 4, d
Staundart atomic wicht 50.9415(1)
Electron confeeguration [Ar] 3d3 4s2
2, 8, 11, 2
Electron shells of vanadium (2, 8, 11, 2)
History
Discovery Andrés Manuel del Río (1801)
First isolation Nils Gabriel Sefström (1830)
Named by Nils Gabriel Sefström (1830)
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 6.0 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 5.5 g·cm−3
Meltin pynt 2183 K, 1910 °C, 3470 °F
Boilin pynt 3680 K, 3407 °C, 6165 °F
Heat o fusion 21.5 kJ·mol−1
Heat o vaporization 459 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 24.89 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2101 2289 2523 2814 3187 3679
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 1.63 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 650.9 kJ·mol−1
2nt: 1414 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2830 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 134 pm
Covalent radius 153±8 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure body-centered cubic
Vanadium has a body-centered cubic crystal structure
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 197 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity 30.7 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 8.4 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 4560 m·s−1
Young's modulus 128 GPa
Shear modulus 47 GPa
Bulk modulus 160 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.37
Mohs hairdness 6.7
CAS registry nummer 7440-62-2
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes o vanadium
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
48V syn 15.9735 d β+ 4.0123 48Ti
49V syn 330 d ε 0.6019 49Ti
50V 0.25% 1.5×1017y ε 2.2083 50Ti
β 1.0369 50Cr
51V 99.75% 51V is stable wi 28 neutrons
· r

Vanadium is a chemical element wi the seembol V an atomic nummer 23. It is a haird, sillery gray, ductile an malleable transeetion metal. The element is foond anly in chemically combined furm in naitur, but ance isolatit airtifeecially, the formation o an oxide layer stabilizes the free metal somewhit against further oxidation.