Tyne an Wear

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Tyne an Wear
Tyne and Wear within England
Shown athin Ingland
Geography
Status Metropolitan coonty an
ceremonial coonty
Origin 1974
(Local Govrenment Act 1972)
Region North East Ingland
Aurie
- Total
Rankit 44t
538 km2 (208 sq mi)
ONS code 2D
NUTS 2 UKC22/23
Demography
Population
- Total (2011 est.)
- Density
Rankit 13t
1,119,600
2,073 /km2 (5,370 /sq mi)
Ethnicity 96.8% White
1.8% S. Asie
Politics
Nae coonty cooncil
Executive  
Members o Parliament
Metropolitan Burghs
TyneWearNumberedAlpha copy.png
  1. Gateshead
  2. Newcastle upon Tyne
  3. North Tyneside
  4. South Tyneside
  5. Sunderland

Tyne an Wear /ˌtn ən ˈwɪər/ is a metropolitan coonty in North East Ingland aroond the mooths o the Rivers Tyne an Wear. It came intae existence as a metropolitan coonty in 1974 efter the passage o the Local Govrenment Act 1972. It consists o the five metropolitan burghs o South Tyneside, North Tyneside, City of Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead an the City of Sunderland.

Prior tae reforms in 1974, the territory comprisin the coonty o Tyne an Wear straddled the border atween the coonties o Northumberland an Coonty Durham. North Tyneside an Newcastle upon Tyne haed previously existit athin o Northumberland, whareas South Tyneside, Gateshead an Sunderland wur aw previously athin the borders o Coonty Durham, wi the River Tyne formin the border o the twa coonties.

Tyne and Wear County Council wis abolished in 1986, an so its destricts (the metropolitan burghs) are nou unitary authorities. Housomeivver, the metropolitan coonty continues tae exist in law an as a geographic frame o reference.[1][2][3]

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead an Sunderland were all constitutit as coonty burghs unner the Local Govrenment Act 1888 (Newcastle haed haed 'coonty burgh' status as the County and Town of Newcastle upon Tyne syne 1400). These wur joined bi Tynemouth in 1904. Atween the coonty burghs various settlements wur pairt o the admeenistrative coonties o Durham an Northumberland.

The need tae reform local govrenment on Tyneside wis recognisit as early as 1935, when a Royal Commission to Investigate the Conditions of Local Government on Tyneside wis appointit.[4] The three commissioners wur tae "examine the seestem o local govrenment in the auries o local govrenment north an sooth o the river Tyne frae the sea tae the boondary o the Rural District of Castle Ward and Hexham in the County of Northumberland an tae the Wastren boondary o the County of Durham, tae consider wha chynges, if ony, shoud be made in the existin arrangements wi a view tae securin greater economy an efficiency, an tae mak recommendations."

The report o the Ryal Commission wis published in 1937.[5] It recommendit the establishment o a Regional Cooncil for Northumberland an Tyneside (tae be cried the "Northumberland Regional Council") tae admeenister services that needit tae be exercisit ower a wide aurie, wi a seicont tier o smawer units for ither local govrenment purposes. The seicont-tier units wad be formit bi amalgamatin the various existin burghs an destricts. The coonty burghs in the aurie wad lose their status. Athin this aurie, a single municipality wad be formit coverin the fower coonty burghs o Newcastle, Gateshead, Tynemouth, South Shields an ither urban destricts an burghs.[6]

A minority report proposed amalgamation o Newcastle, Gateshead, Wallsend, Jarrow, Felling, Gosforth, Hebburn an Newburn intae a single "coonty burgh o Newcastle-on-Tyneside". The 1937 report wis no actit upon : local authorities wur unable tae gree on a scheme an the legislation o the time did no allou central govrenment tae compel ane.[7]

Tyneside (excludin Sunderland) wis a Special Review Area unner the Local Govrenment Act 1958. The Local Government Commission for England came back wi a recommendation tae create a new coonty o Tyneside based on the review aurie, dividit intae fower separate burghs. This wis no implementit. The Redcliffe-Maud Report proposed a Tyneside unitary authority, again excludin Sunderland, which wis tae form a separate East Durham unitary authority.

The White Paper that led tae the Local Govrenment Act 1972 proposed as "aurie 2" a metropolitan coonty includin Newcastle an Sunderland, extendin as far sooth doun the coast as Seaham an Easington, an borderin "aurie 4" (which wad become Cleveland). The Bill as presentit in November 1971 pruned back the soothren edge o the aurie, an gave it the name 'Tyneside'. The name 'Tyneside' wis controversial on Wearside, an the name chyngit to 'Tyne an Wear' bi a govrenment amendment upon the request o Sunderland County Borough Council.[8]

post-1974 pre-1974
Metropolitan coonty Metropolitan burgh Coonty burghs Nan-coonty burghs Urban destricts Rural destricts
Tyne and Wear County.png
Tyne an Wear is an amalgamation o 24 umwhile local govrenment destricts, includin five coonty burghs.
Gateshead Gateshead - Blaydon • Felling • Ryton • Whickham • Chester-le-Street
Newcastle upon Tyne Newcastle upon Tyne - Gosforth • Newburn • Castle Ward •
North Tyneside Tynemouth Wallsend • Whitley Bay • Longbenton • Seaton Valley • -
South Tyneside South Shields Jarrow Boldon • Hebburn • -
Sunderland Sunderland - WashingtonHoughton-le-SpringHetton-le-Hole Easington •


Local govrenment[eedit | eedit soorce]

Although the metropolitan coonty cooncil wis abolished in 1986, several joint bodies exist tae run certain services on a coonty-wide basis. Maist notable is the Tyne and Wear Passenger Transport Authority, which co-ordinates transport policy. Through its passenger transport executive, kent as Nexus, it awns an operates the Tyne and Wear Metro light rail seestem, an the Shields ferry service an the Tyne Tunnel, linkin commonties on either side o the River Tyne. An aw through Nexus, the authority subsidises socially-necessary transport services (includin taxis) an operates a concessionary fares scheme for the elderly an disabled.

The Passenger Transport Authority is a "preceptin authority", raisin funds bi imposin a levy on the Cooncil Tax o the five constituent authorities o Tyne an Wear.

Ither joint bodies include the Tyne and Wear Fire and Rescue Service an Tyne & Wear Archives & Museums, which wis creatit frae the merger o the Tyne and Wear Archives Service an Tyne and Wear Museums. These joint bodies are admeenistered bi representatives o aw five o the constituent cooncils. In addition the Northumbria Police force, which covers the whole o Northumberland an Tyne an Wear, is ane o several joint forces in Ingland spannin twa or mair coonties. The force wis creatit in 1974, an so is no a bi-product o the abolition o the coonty cooncil.

Politics[eedit | eedit soorce]

Tyne an Wear is dividit intae 12 Parliamentary constituencies. In Julie 2005, aw these constituencies wur representit bi Labour. Historically, the aurie haes been a Labour stranghauld: for example, South Shields is the anerlie Parliamentary constituency that haes niver returned a Conservative Member o Parliament (MP) tae the Hoose o Commons syne the Reform Act o 1832.

Reviews bi the Boundary Commission mey lead tae a chynge in the number o parliamentary constituencies in Tyne an Wear, reducin them bi ane. This coud see a constituency returnin a Conservative MP as the reorganisation o constituencies in the City of Sunderland haes creatit a Sunderland Central constituency, encompassin the Conservative-held wairds north an sooth o the River Wear. Washington an Sunderland West an Houghton an Sunderland South are the ither new constituencies, although there haes been criticism that Sunderland does no share the same cultural an historical links that Washington an Houghton-le-Spring dae, which was reflected in the auld Houghton an Washington East constituency. The smaw pairt o the Gateshead East an Washington West constituency that lees athin the City of Sunderland will be includit in the Sunderland North an Washington constituency.

At the level o local govrenment, three o the region's five unitary authorities wur controlled bi Labour in 2005, the exceptions being Newcastle City Council an North Tyneside Council. Syne an upset result in the local elections o 2004, the umwhile haes been controlled bi the Leeberal Democrats. Nae ane pairty haes oweraw control o North Tyneside Council: while the Conservatives hauld the greatest number o seats, 28, they lack an oweraw majority, there are 32 ither cooncillors. North Tyneside is the anerlie authority in the aurie wit a directly electit Mayor. Currently a Conservative member.

Settlements[eedit | eedit soorce]

For a complete leet o aw veelages, touns an ceeties see the leet o places in Tyne an Wear.

Burgh/Ceety Locality Authority
Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead Low Fell

Blaydon
Sheriff Hill
Gateshead
Rowlands Gill
Ryton
Whickham

Gateshead Metropolitian Borough Council
City of Newcastle upon Tyne Byker

Gosforth
North Kenton
Blakelaw
Fenham
Elswick
Newburn
Walbottle
Westerhope
Jesmond
West Moor
Heaton
Newcastle upon Tyne
Throckley
Walker

Newcastle upon Tyne City Council
Metropolitan Borough of North Tyneside Backworth

Benton Cullercoats
Earsdon
Forest Hall Killingworth
Longbenton
Monkseaton
North Shields
Preston
Tynemouth
Wallsend
Whitley Bay
Wideopen

North Tyneside Metropolitian Borough Council
Metropolitan Borough of South Tyneside Boldon

Cleadon
Hebburn
Jarrow
South Shields
Whitburn

South Tyneside Metropolitian Borough Council
City of Sunderland Castletown

Fulwell
Hendon
Herrington
Hetton-le-Hole
Houghton-le-Spring
Hylton Red House
Newbottle
Penshaw
Rainton
Ryhope
Seaburn
Silksworth
Shiney Row
South Hylton
Southwick
Springwell Village
Sunderland
Washington
Warden Law
Ashbrooke Tunstall

Sunderland City Council

Places o interest[eedit | eedit soorce]

See an aw[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Office of National Statistics - Gazetteer of the old and new geographies of the United Kingdom, p48. URL accessed March 12, 2007.
  2. Metropolitan Counties and Districts, Beginners' Guide to UK Geography, Office for National Statistics, September 17, 2004. URL accessed March 12, 2007.
  3. North East England Counties, The Boundary Commission for England. URL accessed March 12, 2007.
  4. London Gazette, 10 May 1935
  5. Local Government in the Tyneside Area (Cmd.5402)
  6. Government of Tyneside : a Regional Council. The Times. March 19, 1937.
  7. Local Government on Tyneside. Sir K. Wood and Report of Commission. The Times. September 22, 1937.
  8. Hansard, 6 July 1972, column 909

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Template:Tyne an Wear Template:T&W places Template:NE Ingland

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