Tin

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Tin
50Sn
Ge

Sn

Pb
indiumtinantimony
Appearance
sillery (left, beta) or gray (richt, alpha)
General properties
Name, seembol, nummer tin, Sn, 50
Pronunciation /ˈtɪn/
Element category poor metal
Group, period, block 14, 5, p
Staundart atomic wicht 118.710
Electron confeeguration [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2
2, 8, 18, 18, 4
Electron shells of tin (2, 8, 18, 18, 4)
History
Discovery aroond 3500 BC
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) (white) 7.365 g·cm−3
Density (near r.t.) (gray) 5.769 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 6.99 g·cm−3
Meltin pynt 505.08 K, 231.93 °C, 449.47 °F
Boilin pynt 2875 K, 2602 °C, 4716 °F
Heat o fusion (white) 7.03 kJ·mol−1
Heat o vaporization (white) 296.1 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity (white) 27.112 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1497 1657 1855 2107 2438 2893
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3[1], 2, 1[2], -4 (amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 1.96 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 708.6 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1411.8 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2943.0 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 140 pm
Covalent radius 139±4 pm
Van der Waals radius 217 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure tetragonal
Tin has a tetragonal crystal structure

white
diamond cubic
Tin has a diamond cubic crystal structure

gray
Magnetic orderin (gray) diamagnetic[3], (white) paramagnetic
Electrical resistivity (0 °C) 115 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity 66.8 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 22.0 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed o soond (thin rod) (r.t.) (rolled)
2730 m·s−1
Young's modulus 50 GPa
Shear modulus 18 GPa
Bulk modulus 58 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.36
Mohs hairdness 1.5
Brinell hairdness ~350 MPa
CAS registry nummer 7440-31-5
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes o tin
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
112Sn 0.97% - (β+β+) 1.9222 112Cd
114Sn 0.66% - (SF) <27.965
115Sn 0.34% - (SF) <26.791
116Sn 14.54% - (SF) <25.905
117Sn 7.68% - (SF) <25.334
118Sn 24.22% - (SF) <23.815
119Sn 8.59% - (SF) <23.140
120Sn 32.58% - (SF) <21.824
122Sn 4.63% - (ββ) 0.3661 122Te
124Sn 5.79% >1×1017 y (ββ) 2.2870 124Te
126Sn trace 2.3×105 y β 0.380 + 126Sb
Decay modes in parentheses are predictit, but hae nae yet been observed
· r

Tin is a chemical element wi seembol Sn (for Laitin: stannum) an atomic nummer 50. It is a main group metal in group 14 o the periodic table. Tin shaws chemical seemilarity tae baith neighborin group-14 elements, germanium an leid, an haes twa possible oxidation states, +2 an the slichtly mair stable +4. Tin is the 49t maist abundant element an haes, wi 10 stable isotopes, the lairgest nummer o stable isotopes in the periodic table. Tin is obtained chiefly frae the mineral cassiterite, whaur it occurs as tin dioxide, SnO2.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "SnH3". NIST Chemistry WebBook. National Institure of Standards and Technology. Retrieved 23 January 2013. 
  2. "HSn". NIST Chemistry WebBook. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved 23 January 2013. 
  3. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5.