Tigris

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Tigris
River
Aboot 100 km frae its soorce, the Tigris enables rich agricultur ootside Diyarbakır, Turkey.
Kintras Turkey, Syria, Iraq
Tributaries
 - left Batman, Khabur, Greater Zab, Lesser Zab, 'Adhaim, Diyala, Cizre
 - right Wadi Tharthar
Cities Diyarbakır, Mosul, Baghdad
Source Lake Hazar
 - elevation 1,150 m (3,773 ft)
 - coordinates 38°29′0″N 39°25′0″E / 38.48333°N 39.41667°E / 38.48333; 39.41667
Mouth Shatt al-Arab
 - location Al-Qurnah, Basra Govrenorate, Iraq
Length 1,850 km (1,150 mi)
Basin 375,000 km2 (144,788 sq mi)
Discharge for Baghdad
 - average 1,014 m3/s (35,809 cu ft/s)
 - max 2,779 m3/s (98,139 cu ft/s)
 - min 337 m3/s (11,901 cu ft/s)
Cairt o the Tigris-Euphrates basin aurie
[1][2]

The Tigris River (/ˈtɡrɪs/) is the eastren member o the twa great rivers that define Mesopotamie, the ither bein the Euphrates. The river flaws sooth frae the muntains o sootheastren Turkey through Iraq.

Geografie[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Tigris is 1,850 km lang, risin in the Taurus Muntains o eastren Turkey aboot 25 km sootheast o the ceety o Elazig an aboot 30 km frae the heidwatters o the Euphrates. The river then flaws for 400 km through Turkish territory afore acomin the border atween Sirie an Turkey. This stretch o 44 km is the only pairt o the river that is locatit in Sirie. The remainin 1,418 km are entirely within Iraq.[1]

The Tigris unites wi the Euphrates near Basra, an frae this junction tae the Persian Gulf the mass o movin watter is kent as the Shatt-al-Arab. Accordin tae Pliny an ither auncient historians, the Euphrates originally haed its ootlet intae the sea separate frae that o the Tigris.[3]

Baghdad, the caipital o Iraq, staunds on the banks o the Tigris. The port ceety o Basra straddles the Shatt al-Arab. In auncient times, mony o the great ceeties o Mesopotamie stuid on or near the Tigris, drawin watter frae it tae irrigate the ceevilization o the Sumerians. Notable Tigris-side ceeties includit Ninawa, Ctesiphon, an Seleucia, while the ceety o Lagash wis irrigatit bi the Tigris via a canal dug aroond 2400 BC.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Isaev, V.A.; Mikhailova, M.V. (2009). "The hydrology, evolution, and hydrological regime of the mouth area of the Shatt al-Arab River". Water Resources 36 (4): 380–395. doi:10.1134/S0097807809040022. 
  2. Kolars, J.F.; Mitchell, W.A. (1991). The Euphrates River and the Southeast Anatolia Development Project. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. pp. 6–8. ISBN 0-8093-1572-6. 
  3. Pliny: Natural History, VI, XXVI, 128-131