Tashkömür (Kyrgyz: Ташкөмүр, an aa written Tash-Kumyr) is ane o the five lairgest touns o the Jalal-Abad Province in soothren Kyrgyzstan. It is locatit alang the Wast bank o the Naryn River, opposite the main Osh - Bishkek road. Locatit at the edge o the Tien Shan Muntains, when heidin sooth frae Bishkek, Tashkömür is the gateway tae the Fergana valley.
Offeecially foondit on December 17, 1943, Tashkömür , meanin stane-coal, grew intae ane o the lairgest industrial centers o the Central Asian region o the Soviet Union. It wis primarily a minin toun, but haed a cigarette factory an ither industries as well, which complementit the ootput o the coal mines. A railroad wis constructit, an trains transportit the coal oot o Tashkömür tae aw corners o the Soviet Union. At its peak, Tashkömür haed a population o aroond 35,000.
Dams constructit alang the Naryn river transformed wha uised tae be a stream intae a sizable river. Residents will an aa attest tae a chynge in climate, which they attribute tae the dams. Furthermair, the Tashkömür dam an the Shamaldysay dam raised the water level considerably, causin certain settlements tae be submerged bi the water. Despite the presence o the dams an hydroelectic plants, Tashkömür still does no hae 100% reliable electricity.
The Land an The Fowk
Tashkömür is locatit in what coud be described as a canyon, which the Naryn river runs through.
Fossils o dinosaurs an dinosaur eggs hae been discovered in the aurie, an paleontologists hae speculatit that ance the aurie wis uised bi dinosaurs tae lay their eggs. The muntains surroondin the town are rich in minerals, no anerlie in coal, which gave Tashkömür its fame.
The toun spans 5 kilometers (3.1 miles) north tae sooth, but is less than a kilometer (0.6 miles) athort. There is nae arable land in Tashkömür, although juist a few kilometers sooth the Fergana Valley begins, an the cotton plantations are ubiquitous, alangside the melons an ither crops.
Tashkömür is dividit intae five neighborhuids: Severniy (the North), Bayetova, the Center, Dostuk, and the Mikrorayon. Each neighborhuid haes its awn schuil, except for the center, whaur there are 3 schuils.
The toun o Tashkömür an aa owersees fower veelages: Shamaldysay, Kyzyl-Alma, Bazyl-Ata, an Mailisay. Shamaldysay, the lairgest o these fower veelages, haes three schuils (#2, #8, an #10) while the ither three veelages hae anerlie ane schuil each (#11, #6, and #9 respectively).
At the time o its fundation, the population o Tashkömür wis maistly Roushie an ethnically non-Kyrgyz. There wis nae grazable land, so the Kyrgyz haed niver settled there. Efter coal wis discovered, Kyrgyz families began tae muive intae toun. Up till Kyrgyzstan's unthirldom in 1991 the Kyrgyz wur no the owerwhelmin majority. Housomeivver, efter the breakup o the Soviet Union, mony Roushies an residents o ither naitionalities began tae leave. This wis pairticularly the case up till 1995, when the biggest economic problems affectit the town, which continue tae this day (2006). Nouw the Kyrgyz population makes up ower 90% o the population. Although anerlie about 20 kilometers (12 miles) frae the Uzbek border, Tashkömür does no hae a lairge Uzbek population (less than 50 families). The total population o Tashkömür is estimatit tae be atween 20-25,000, however the continuous emigration o its residents makes it haurd tae ken exactly.
The Local Economy
Iver syne the mine wis shut doun an the factories closed, the toun haes been strugglin tae survive. The answer, for mony, haes been tae emigrate tae Roushie, Kazakhstan, or simply tae the caipital, Bishkek. Maist families claim at least ane member wirkin abroad tae mak ends meet. The men uisually wirk construction jobs, while the weemen find jobs as salesweemen at the bazaars or stores. These migrant wirkers are uisually saisonal: they leave in the early ware an return in the hairst, syne the cauld in the north makes for haurd wirkin conditions. The remittances hae alloued Tashkömür residents tae retain a decent staundart o livin. In recent years, mony hae uised the money tae renovate their hames, tae buy DVD players an satellite dishes, or tae open stores, an try tae stairt a business.
As Uzbekistan haes made it mair difficult an expensive for guids tae be exportit sooth intae, an through Uzbekistan, Tashkömür's major openin tae the ootside warld haes been severed an in turn, its ability tae export ony guids it micht manufactur haes dropped.
While durin the Soviet era aw apairtment biggins haed gas an wirkin plumbin, this is nae langer the case. Water delivery, especially to the homes on the edge of town, is not reliable. There is no hot water. In 2006 cell phones finally reached Tashkömür, which had been one of the last towns in the country left without them. There is still nae public internet access.
- "Profile of town Tash-Kumyr(in Russian)". Retrieved 2010-03-13.