Tantalum

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Tantalum
73Ta
Nb

Ta

Db
hafniumtantalumtungsten
Appearance
gray blue


Spectral lines o tantalum (400 nm - 700 nm)
General properties
Name, seembol, nummer tantalum, Ta, 73
Pronunciation /ˈtæntələm/
TAN-təl-əm;
previously /tænˈtæliəm/
tan-TAL-ee-əm
Element category transeetion metal
Group, period, block 5, 6, d
Staundart atomic wicht 180.94788
Electron confeeguration [Xe] 4f14 5d3 6s2
2, 8, 18, 32, 11, 2
Electron shells of tantalum (2, 8, 18, 32, 11, 2)
History
Discovery Anders Gustaf Ekeberg (1802)
Recognized as a distinct element bi Heinrich Rose (1844)
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 16.69 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 15 g·cm−3
Meltin pynt 3290 K, 3017 °C, 5463 °F
Boilin pynt 5731 K, 5458 °C, 9856 °F
Heat o fusion 36.57 kJ·mol−1
Heat o vaporization 732.8 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 25.36 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 3297 3597 3957 4395 4939 5634
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 5, 4, 3, 2, -1 (mildly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.5 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 761 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1500 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 146 pm
Covalent radius 170±8 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure body-centered cubic[1]
Tantalum has a body-centered cubic crystal structure

α-Ta
tetragonal[1]
Tantalum has a tetragonal crystal structure

β-Ta
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic[2]
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 131 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity 57.5 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 6.3 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 3400 m·s−1
Young's modulus 186 GPa
Shear modulus 69 GPa
Bulk modulus 200 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.34
Mohs hairdness 6.5
Vickers hairdness 873 MPa
Brinell hairdness 800 MPa
CAS registry nummer 7440-25-7
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes o tantalum
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
177Ta syn 56.56 h ε 1.166 177Hf
178Ta syn 2.36 h ε 1.910 178Hf
179Ta syn 1.82 y ε 0.110 179Hf
180Ta syn 8.125 h ε 0.854 180Hf
β 0.708 180W
180mTa 0.012% >1.2×1015 y (ε) 0.929 180Hf
(β) 0.783 180W
(IT) 0.075 180Ta
(α) 2.103 176Lu
181Ta 99.988% - (α) 1.5259 177Lu
182Ta syn 114.43 d β 1.814 182W
183Ta syn 5.1 d β 1.070 183W
Decay modes in parentheses are predictit, but hae nae yet been observed
· r

Tantalum is a chemical element wi the seembol Ta an atomic nummer 73. Previously kent as tantalium, its name comes frae Tantalus, a character frae Greek meethology.[3] Tantalum is a rare, haird, blue-gray, lustrous transeetion metal that is heichly corrosion-resistant. It is pairt o the refractory metals group, which are widely uised as minor components in alloys. The chemical inertness o tantalum maks it a valuable substance for laboratory equipment an a substitute for platinum, but its main uise the day is in tantalum capacitors in electronic equipment such as mobile phones, DVD players, video gemme seestems an computers. Tantalum, always thegither wi the chemically similar niobium, occurs in the minerals tantalite, columbite an coltan (a mix o columbite an tantalite).

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 doi:10.1107/S0567740873004140
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  2. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  3. Euripides, Orestes