Sulphur

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Sulfur
16S
O

S

Se
phosphorussulfurchlorine
Appearance
lemon yellae sintered microcrystals


Spectral lines o sulfur
General properties
Name, seembol, nummer sulfur, S, 16
Pronunciation /ˈsʌlfər/ SUL-fər
Element category polyatomic nonmetal
Group, period, block 16 (chalcogens), 3, p
Staundart atomic wicht 32.066(1)
Electron confeeguration [Ne] 3s2 3p4
2, 8, 6
Electron shells of sulfur (2, 8, 6)
History
Discovery Cheenese[1] (Before 2000BC)
Recognized as an element bi Antoine Lavoisier (1777)
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) (alpha) 2.07 g·cm−3
Density (near r.t.) (beta) 1.96 g·cm−3
Density (near r.t.) (gamma) 1.92 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 1.819 g·cm−3
Meltin pynt 388.36 K, 115.21 °C, 239.38 °F
Boilin pynt 717.8 K, 444.6 °C, 832.3 °F
Creetical pynt 1314 K, 20.7 MPa
Heat o fusion (mono) 1.727 kJ·mol−1
Heat o vaporization (mono) 45 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 22.75 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 375 408 449 508 591 717
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1, -2
(strangly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity 2.58 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 999.6 kJ·mol−1
2nt: 2252 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 3357 kJ·mol−1
Covalent radius 105±3 pm
Van der Waals radius 180 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure orthorhombic
Sulfur has a orthorhombic crystal structure
Magnetic orderin diamagnetic[2]
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) (amorphous)
2×1015 Ω·m
Thermal conductivity (amorphous)
0.205 W·m−1·K−1
Bulk modulus 7.7 GPa
Mohs hairdness 2.0
CAS registry nummer 7704-34-9
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes o sulfur
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
32S 95.02% 32S is stable wi 16 neutrons
33S 0.75% 33S is stable wi 17 neutrons
34S 4.21% 34S is stable wi 18 neutrons
35S syn 87.32 d β 0.167 35Cl
36S 0.02% 36S is stable wi 20 neutrons
· r

Sulphur or sulfur (Breetish Inglis; see spellin ablo) is a chemical element wi seembol S an atomic nummer 16. It is an abundant, multivalent non-metal. Unner normal conditions, sulphur atoms furm cyclic octatomic molecules wi chemical formula S8. Elemental sulphur is a bricht yellae crystalline solid when at ruim temperatur. Chemically, sulfur can react as either an oxidant or reducin agent. It oxidizes maist metals an several nonmetals, includin carbon, which leads tae its negative charge in maist organosulfur compounds, but it reduces several strang oxidants, such as oxygen an fluorine.

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