Sofia

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Sofia
София
Frae top left: Tsarigrad Road, Naitional Assembly Square, Sofia University rectorate, Naitional Palace o Cultur detail, Maw o Sofia, Ivan Vazov Naitional Theatre, Hagia Sophia Kirk, Eagles' Brig detail

Flag

Coat of arms
Motto: Расте, но не старее
(Grows but Does no Age)[1]
Sofia is located in Bulgaria
Sofia
Sofia
Position o Sofia in Bulgarie
Coordinates: 42°42′N 23°20′E / 42.700°N 23.333°E / 42.700; 23.333
Kintra Banner o Bulgarie Bulgarie
Province Sofia-Caipital
Settled by Thracians as Serdica 7t century BC
Government
 • Mayor o Sofia Yordanka Fandakova
Area
 • City 492 km2 (190 sq mi)
Elevation 550 m (1,800 ft)
Population (Census 2011 (Ceety an Urban),[2]
Forecast 2011 (Metro)[3])
 • City 1,232,088
 • Density 944/km2 (2,440/sq mi)
 • Urban 1,291,591
 • Metro 1,370,000 (Metro aurie)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 1000
Area code(s) (+359) 02
Website www.Sofia.bg

Sofia (Bulgarie: София, pronounced [ˈsɔfija] ( listen)) is the caipital an lairgest ceety[4] o Bulgarie an the 47t lairgest ceety bi population in the European Union wi 1.3 million fowk.[5][6] It is locatit in wastren Bulgarie, at the fuit o Munt Vitosha an is ranked as a Beta warld ceety.

Prehistoric settlements wur excavatit in the centre o the present ceety, near the ryal palace, as well as in ooter districts such as Slatina an Obelya. The well-preserved toun walls (especially their substructures) frae antiquity date back afore the 7t century BC, when Thracians establisht their ceety next tae the maist important an heichlie respectit mineral sprung, still functionin the day. Sofia haes haed several names in the different periods o its existence, an remnants frae the ceety's past can still be seen the day alangside modren landmarks.

Names[eedit | eedit soorce]

Sofia wis first mentioned in the sources as Serdica in relation tae Marcus Licinius Crassus' campaigns in 59 BC. The name Serdica or Sardica (Σερδική, Σαρδική) wis popular in Laitin, Auncient Greek an Byzantine Greek sources frae Antiquity an the Middle Ages; it wis relatit tae the local Celtic[7] tribe o the Serdi. The name wis last uised in the 19t century in a Bulgarie text, Service an hagiografie o Saunt George the New o Sofia: ВЪ САРДАКІИ. Anither o Sofia's names, Triaditsa (Τριάδιτζα), wis mentioned in Greek medieval sources. The Bulgarian name Sredets (СРѢДЄЦЪ), which is relatit tae среда sreda (middle), first appeared in the 11t-century Vision o Daniel an wis widely uised in the Middle Ages. The current name Sofia wis first uised in the 14t-century Vitosha Chairter o Bulgarian tsar Ivan Shishman or in a Ragusan merchant's notes o 1376; it refers tae the famous Hagia Sophia, an auncient kirk in the ceety namit efter the Christian concept o the Holy Wisdom. Although Sredets remained in uise till the late 18t century, Sofia gradually owercame the Slavic name in popularity.[8] Durin the Ottoman rule it wis cawed Sofya bi the Turkish population.

The ceety's name is pronooncit bi Bulgaries wi a stress on the 'o', in contrast wi the tendency o foreigners tae place the stress on 'i'. Interestingly, the female given name "Sofia" is pronooncit bi Bulgaries wi a stress on the 'i'.

Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Twin touns — Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Sofia is twinned wi:

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Sofia Trough Centuries". Sofia Municipality. Retrieved 2009-10-16. 
  2. Census 2011
  3. eurometrex.org, Sofia Metro Aurie (1,280,000 in 2001 an 1,450,000 in 2020, equal tae 1,370,000 in 2011); Sofia Metro Region (1,435,000 in 2001 an 1,540,000 in 2020, equal tae 1,490,000 in 2011)
  4. "Таблица на населението по постоянен и настоящ адрес". ГД "Гражданска Регистрация и Административно Обслужване". Retrieved 2008-03-10. 
  5. [1]
  6. "Population table by permanent and present address" (in Bulgarian). Head Direction of Residential Registration and Administrative Service. Retrieved 2010-01-15. 
  7. The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC by John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, E. Sollberger, and N. G. L. Hammond, ISBN 0-521-22717-8, 1992, page 600: "In the place of the vanished Treres and Tilataei we find the Serdi for whom there is no evidence before the first century bc.It has for long being supposed on convincing linguistic and archeological grounds that this tribe was of Celtic origin"
  8. Чолева-Димитрова, Анна М. (2002). Селищни имена от Югозападна България: Изследване. Речник (in Bulgarian). София: Пенсофт. pp. 169–170. ISBN 9546421685. OCLC 57603720. 
  9. "Twinning Cities: International Relations" (PDF). Municipality of Tirana. www.tirana.gov.al. Retrieved 2009-06-23. 
  10. Twinning Cities: International Relations. Municipality of Tirana. www.tirana.gov.al. Retrieved on 2008-01-25.

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]