|Claimed bi|| Kinrick o Morocco,
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
Table o contents
The laiirgest ceety in its province, Smara wis foondit in the Saguia el-Hamra as an oasis for travellers in 1869. It is the anerlie major ceety in Wastren Sahara that wis no foondit bi the Spainyie. In the center o the ceety the remains o a stane fortress can be foond, the Zawiy Maalainin, which enclosed a mosque. The Maalainin lived there frae 1830 till 1912. It wis made a caipital an releegious center in 1902 bi shaykh Ma al-'Aynayn, in wha wis then Spainyie Sahara. The location o the ceety wis intendit tae ensure its becomin a caravan trade hub in the spairsely populatit Sahara desert. The enlairgement o Smara wis carried oot bi local Sahrawis as well as craftsmen sent bi the sultan Hassan I. In 1902, shaykh Ma al-'Aynayn moved tae Smara an declared it his holy caipital. Amang ither things, he creatit here an important Islamic library, an the toun became a center o releegious learnin.
In 1904 the shaykh declared hissel an imam an cried for holy war (jihad) against French colonialism, which wis increasingly pressin intae the Sahara at this time. Durin the campaign against Ma al-'Aynayn, Smara wis sacked amaist completely in 1913 bi the French Airmy, an its library destroyed. The toun wis then haundit ower tae the Spainyie. In 1934 the toun wis ance again destroyed efter Sahrawi rebellions against the Spainyie occupation.
The Vieuchange brithers
Reachin Ma el Ainain's mysterious Smara wis the goal o the brithers Vieuchange, early 20t century French writers an romantics. Michel Vieuchange's painful journey through the rebel-held Sahrawi lands in 1930 disguised varyingly as a tribesman, a Muslim wumman an an US businessman, an the illness that lead tae his daith on the way back, is documentit in his travel diaries. They wur published posthumously as Semara: The Forbidden City (1932) bi his brither Jean.
In 1975, Morocco teuk control o Saguia Elhamra as Spain athdrew, accordin tae the Madrid Accords. The Moroccan airmy teuk the ceety frae the Polisario Front in 1976. Near Tindouf, Algerie, there still exists a Sahrawi refugee camp named efter Smara. It is ane o the fower camps o the SADR admeenistration in Algerie.
- Stefan Helders (2006). Western Sahara - largest cities (per geographical entity) (English). World Gazetteer. Retrieved on 24 August 2006. .
- After a defeat of the French at Lebeyratt colonel Mouret mounts an attack against Smara. Leaving from Teyarett (in the north-west of Atar) on the 9th of february, he arrives in the Zemmour on the first of march to sack the holy city (Smara). He finds her empty of all people.(Le Rumeur (Guy) : Le Grand Méhariste, Paris, Berger Levrault)
- Accordin tae the American Refugee Committee (ARC), approximately 39,000 Sahrawi refugees live in Asward camp, which is some 20 miles (30km) frae Tindouf; some 38,000 live in Dakhla camp, the furthest at aboot 110 miles (180 km) frae Tindouf; an estimatit 39,000 refugees live in Laayoune camp, aboot 5 miles (10 km) frae Tindouf; an mair than 39,000 Sahrawi refugees live in Smara camp, which is aboot 30 miles (50 km) frae Tindouf. The number o refugees in the camps haes, accordin tae ARC, quadrupled syne 1979.
- Entry in Lexicorient
- ad for "Smara: The Forbidden City" by Jean and Michel Vieuchange (ISBN 0-88001-146-7)
- Satellite view in Google Maps