|• ISO 259||Šparˁam|
|• An aw spelt||Shfar'am (official)|
|• Heid o Municipality||Nahed Khazem|
|• Total||19,766 dunams (19.766 km2 or 7.632 sq mi)|
Shefa-'Amr, an aa Shfar'am (Arabic: شفاعمرو, Šafā ʻAmr; Ebreu: שְׁפַרְעָם, Šəfarʻam) is a predominantly Arab ceety in the North Destrict o Israel. Accordin tae the Israel Central Bureau o Statistics (CBS), at the end o 2009 the ceety haed a population o 35,300.
Table o contents
Etymology[eedit | eedit soorce]
In the Roman Era, the toun wis kent as "Shofar Am", Hebrew for "horn o a naition". It is thought that this name is derived frae that o the Jewish Sanhedrin, which for a time wis locatit in the ceety an wis considered the naition's horn. Alternatively, the name coud be based on the literary Ebreu wird shefer שפר, meanin "beauty" or "guidness", i.e. "the beauty o the fowk". Accordin tae a popular Arab legend, the Arab general Amr Ibn Al-Aas wis cured o an illness efter drinkin the local water. Upon seein their commander's recovery, his sodgers cheered "Shofiya Amr" (Arabic for "Amr wis healed"), an that wis the source o the name. The spring frae which he allegedly drank is locatit sootheast o the ceety. Ithers allege that the name "Shfar-am" wis chyngit tae an Arabic form "Shefa-'Amr" in the Mamluk period.
History[eedit | eedit soorce]
Airchaeological research in Shefa-'Amr indicates that the aurie haes been inhabited for centuries. It is unclear who the early inhabitants wur, although they mey hae been Canaanites. Shefa-'Amr is mentioned in the Talmud as ane o the ceeties that contained the seat o the Jewish Sanhedrin. It is again mentioned in connection wi Jewish revolts against the Romans, an Jewish graves an remains in caves datin tae the Roman era o rule in Palestine hae been foond there.
Shefa-'Amr contains Byzantine remains, includin remains o a kirk an tombs. Unner the Crusaders the place wis kent as Safran, Sapharanum, Castrum Zafetanum, Saphar castrum or Cafram. The veelage (cried "Shafar Am) wis uised, atween 586-590 H., bi Saladin as a military base for attacs on Acre. Bi 1229, the place wis back in Crusader haunds, an it wis confirmed as such bi Sultan Baybars in the peace treaty o 1271 C.E. (670 H.), an bi Qulawun in 1283. Housomeivver, it apparently came unner Mamluk control in 1291 C.E.
Durin early Ottoman rule in Palestine, in 1564 C.E., the revenues o the veelage o Shefa-'Amr wur designatit for the new waqf o Hasseki Sultan Imaret in Jerusalem, established bi Hasseki Hurrem Sultan (Roxelana), the wife o Suleiman the Magnificent. A firman datit 981 H. (1573 C.E.) mention that Shefa-'Amr wis amang a group o veelages in nahiya o Akka which haed rebelled against the Ottoman admeenistration. Bi 1577 C.E. the veelage haed accumulatit an arsenal o 200 muskets. In the 1596 daftar, Shefa-'Amr wis pairt o the nahiya (subdestrict) o Akka wi a population o 91 hoosehaulds ("khana"). The taxable produce comprised "occasional revenues" an "goats an beehives". Its inhabitants an aw paid for the uise or awnership o an ile press.
It wis no till the aichteent century that the veelage rose tae real prominence. At the beginnin o the century the veelage wis unner control o Shaykh Ali Zaydani, uncle o DahEr el-Omar an leadin shaykh o lawer Galilee. It is an aa kent that there wis a castle in the veelage at least as early as 1740. Efter Daher al-Omar's rise tae pouer in the 1740s, Ali Zaydani wis replaced wi his nephew, Uthman; a brither o Daher el-Omar. Efter el-Omar's daith in 1775, Jezzar Pasha alloued Uthman tae continue as a ruler o Shefa-'Amr in return for a promise o loyalty an advance payment o taxes. Jezzar Pasha alloued the fortress tae remain intact despite orders frae Constantinople that it shoud be destroyed. Several years later Uthman wis remuivit an replaced wi Ibrahim Abu Qalush, an appointee o Jezzar Pasha.
Durin this period Shefa-'Amr wis a regional centre o some importance. The importance o the veelage wis due tae twa factors; firstly, its position in the hert o the cotton growin aurie, seicontly its natural an manmade defences. The significance o cotton tae the growth o Shefa-'Amr is fundamental. Tax returns for the veelage attest tae the lairge returns expectit o this crop.
Geography[eedit | eedit soorce]
Shefa-'Amr is an auncient ceety locatit in the North Destrict in Israel at the entrance tae Galilee. It is locatit 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) frae the Mediterranean Sea an 20 kilometres (12 mi) frae each o three ceeties, Haifa, Acre an Nazareth, which gives its inhabitants ample opportunity for employment. The ceety is locatit on seiven hills, which gives it the name "Little Roum". The elevation o the ceety an its strategic location as the connection atween the valleys an muntains o Galilee made it mair than ance the center o its destrict, especially in the period o Otman the son o Dhaher al-Omar, who built a castle in it, an touers aroond it. If you staund in a heich spot in the ceety you can see a great view: the bay o Haifa wi the sea stretchin atween Haifa an Acre in the wast, an in ither directions the heich muntains o Galilee an the valleys surroondin the ceety.
Till 1900, the Jews o Shefa-'Amr wirked as fermers. Subsequently they stairtit wirkin as merchants acause o the heich taxes. Therefore they went tae live in Haifa an Acre, till in 1920 the last Jewish family wis forced oot the ceety in the wake o the 1920 Palestine riots. In 1919, when Breetain ruled the aurie, they appointed a military govrenor till 1948, when Israel wis foondit an Shefa-'Amr became a local cooncil.
The Mayor o Shefa-'Amr Ibraheem Nimr Hussein held the chairmanship o the Committee o Arab Mayors in Israel (later the Arab Follow-Up Committee) syne the inception o this committee in 1975. Orsan Yassin, the Mayor who replaced him in the 90's, did no want tae tak a pairt o this committee so he resigned frae it and the chairmanship wis given tae someane else.
Demographics[eedit | eedit soorce]
Template:Arab citizens o Israel In 1596, Shafa'amr appeared in Ottoman tax registers as being in the Nahiya o Akka o the Liwa o Safad. It haed a population o 83 Christian hoosehaulds an 8 bachelors. Nae Jews wur notit, but there haed been a vera sma number mentioned in the early decades o that century. The next definite indication o a Jewish presence wis in the 18t century.
Finn reportit wrote in 1877 that "The majority o the inhabitants are Druses. There are a few Moslems an a few Christians; but [in 1850] there wur thirty Jewish families livin as agriculturists, cultivatin grain an olives on their awn landit property, maist o it family inheritance; some o these fowk wur o Algerine descent. They haed their awn synagogue an legally qualifee'd butcher, an their numbers haed ance been mari considerable." But "they efterwards dwindled tae twa families, the rest remuivin tae [Haifa] as that port rose in prosperity." Conder an Kitchener, who visitit in 1875, wis tauld that the community consistit o "2,500 souls—1,200 being Moslems, the rest Druses, Greeks, an Laitins."
At the time o the 1922 census o Palestine, Shafa Amr haed a population o 1263 Christians, 623 Muslims, an 402 Druses. Bi the 1931 census, it haed 629 occupee'd hooses an a population o 1321 Christians, 1006 Muslims, 496 Druses, an 1 Jew. A further 1197 Muslims in 234 occupee'd hooses wis recordit for "Shafa 'Amr Suburbs". Statistics compiled bi the Mandatory govrenment in 1945 showed an urban population o 1560 Christians, 1380 Muslims, 10 Jews an 690 "ithers" (presumably Druses) an a rural population o 3560 Muslims.
In 1951, the population wis 4450, o whom aboot 10% wur refugees frae ither veelages. Durin the early 1950s, aboot 25,000 dunams o the land o Shefa Amr wis expropriatit bi the follaein method: the land wis declared a closed military aurie, then efter enough time haed passed for it tae hae become legally "uncultivatit", the Meenister o Agricultur uised his pouers tae "ensure that it wis cultivatit" bi givin it tae neighborin Jewish communities. Some o the land wis awned bi Jews. Another 7,579 dunams was expropriated in 1953-4. The total land hauldins o the veelage fell frae 58,725 dunams in 1945 tae 10,371 dunams in 1962.
Shfar'am's diverse population drawn frae several different communities gives the ceety a relatively cosmopolitan an multi-cultural ambiance.
Accordin tae CBS, in 2009 the releegious an ethnic makeup o the ceety wis maistly Israeli Arabs (consistin o 59.5% Muslim, 26.3% Christian, an 14.3% Druze). Accordin tae CBS, in 2009 there wur 35,300 registered citizens in the ceety. The population o the ceety wis spread oot wi 44.3% 19 years o age or younger, 15% atween 20 an 29, 21.9% atween 30 an 44, 13.3% frae 45 tae 64, an 4.5% 65 years o age or aulder.
Population in Shefa-'Amr ower the years:
Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]
Accordin tae the CBS, as o the year 2000, there wur as mony as 7,114 salaried an 872 sel-employed wirkers in the ceety . The mean monthly wage in 2000 for a salaried wirker in the ceety is ILS 3,836, a real chynge o 3.4% ower the course o 2000. Salaried males hae a mean monthly wage o ILS 4,543 (a real chynge o 5.3%) versus ILS 2,386 for females (a real chynge o -3.3%). The mean income for the sel-employed is 5,777. There are 507 fowk who receive unemployment benefits an 5,315 fowk who receive an income guarantee.
Education[eedit | eedit soorce]
In 2007, there wur 23 schuils caterin tae a student population o 9,140: 11 elementary schuils wi 5,233 students an 12 heich schuils wi 3,907 students. In 2001, 57.7% o twalt grade students wur entitled tae a matriculation certificate. In the eastren pairt o the ceety, Mifal HaPayis haes built mony educational biggins: a public computer center, a public library, a lairge events haw an mair.
Cultur an the airts[eedit | eedit soorce]
Beit almusica conservatory wis foondit in 1999 bi muisicker 'Aamer Nakhleh' in the center o Shefa-'Amr. It affers a year-roond programs o muisic studies in various instruments, an haulds mony muisic performances an concerts. Ivery year Shefa-'Amr haulds a muisic festival kent as the "Fort Festival." Arab childer frae aw ower the kintra compete in singin classic Arabic sangs an ane is chosen as "Best voice o the year." The Ba'ath choir, established bi Raheeb Haddad, performs aw ower the kintra an pairticipates in mony internaitional events. Reem Talhami is a well kent classic sangster who gives concerts aw ower the Arab warld. Tayseer Elias is a leadin Arab muisicker an violin player.
Butrus Lusia is a Shefa'Amr painter who specializes in icons for Christian kirks.
The first plays in Shefa-'Amr wur performed in the 1950s bi the Christian scouts. Syne the 1970s, mony theaters hae opened. amang them the sons o Shefa-A'mr theater, Athar theater, hoose o the youth theater, Alghurbal Al Shefa-'Amry theater an Al Ufok theater. The lairgest theater in the ceety is the Ghurbal Establishment which is a naitional Arab theater. Sa'eed Salame, an actor, comedian an pantomimist, established an 3-day internaitional pantomime festival that is held annually.
Shefa-'Amr is famous for its mastic-flavored ice cream, bozet Shefa-'Amr. The Nakhleh Coffee Company is the leadin coffee producer in Israel's Arab community.
New restaurant-cafes hae been opened in pairts o the auld ceety; those places are becomin the main cafes the youth o Shefa-Amr chuise tae spend their free time an special occasions in. Awt Cafe stairtit hauldin muisical nichts whaur local sangsters an instruments players like Oud an ithers play for the croud o visitors. Being a new trend in the ceety these nichts are becomin a great success an the cafe in those nichts is aaways full o fowk who come tae enjoy a cultural nicht wi their friends an families.
The Shfar'am attack[eedit | eedit soorce]
On August 4, 2005, an AWOL Israeli Defense Force sodger, Eden Natan-Zada, opened fire while aboard a bus in the ceety, killin fower Israeli Arab citizens an woundin twinty-twa ithers. Efter the shootin, Natan-Zada wis overcome bi nearbi crouds, lynched an beaten wi rocks. Accordin tae witnesses, the bus driver wis surprised tae see a kippah-wearin Jewish sodger makin his wey tae Shefa-'Amr (an owerwhelmingly Arab ceety) via public bus, so inquired o Natan-Zada whether he wis certain he wantit tae tak his current route. The fower fatalities wur Hazar an Dina Turki, twa sisters in their early twenties, an twa men, Michel Bahouth (the bus driver) an Nader Hayek. In the days follaein the attack, 40,000 people attendit mass funeral services for the victims. The sisters wur buriet in an Islamic cemetery an the men wur buried in the Christian Catholic cemetery. The woundit wur taken tae the Rambam Hospital in Haifa.
Israel Unthirldom Day[eedit | eedit soorce]
In Januar 2008, the mayor o Shefa-'Amr, Ursan Yassin, met wi offeecials o the Israeli state committee on the celebrations for the 60t anniversary o independence, an annoonced that Shefa-'Amr intends tae tak pairt in the celebrations. He statit: "This is oor kintra an we completely disappruive o the statements made bi the Heicher Monitorin Committee. I want tae hauld a central ceremony in Shefa-'Amr, raise aw the banners an hae a huge feast. The 40,000 residents o Shefa-'Amr feel that they are a pairt o the State o Israel...The desire tae participate in the festivities is shared by maist o the residents. We will no raise oor childer tae hate the kintra. This is oor kintra an we want tae live in coexistence wi its Jewish residents."
Landmarks[eedit | eedit soorce]
- A fort wis built in 1760 bi the Ottoman the son o the Ottoman ruler Daher al-Omar, at the time the govrenor o the aurie, for the purpose o securin the entrance tae Galilee. The fort wis built on remains o a Crusader fort cried "Le Seffram". The first floor o the fort wis for the horses, the seicont floor wis whaur Dhaher lived. Daher's fort is considered the biggest remain o the Zidans in Galilee. Efter the establishment o the state, the fort wis uised as a polis station. Efter a new station wis built in the "Fawwar" neighbourhuid, it wis renovatit an convertit tae a youth center club, which haes syne closed doun.
- "The Tower" or "al Burj" is an auld Crusader fort locatit in the soothren pairt o the ceety.
- The auld merket o Shefa-'Amr wis ance the bustlin hert o the ceety. Nou aw that remains is ane coffee shop whaur elderly men gather ivery day tae play backgammon an drink Arab coffee. Accordin tae the mayor o Shefa-Amr, Nahed Khazem, the govrenment haes providit a budget for impruivin an revivin the auld mercat an turnin the aurie aroond the fort intae a tourist attraction.
Jewish steids[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Main airticle: Shfaram Ancient Synagogue
Shefa'-Amr is hame tae an auld synagogue on the steid o an even aulder structur. It is recordit as being active in 1845. A Christian resident o the toun haulds the keys. The synagogue wis renovatit in 2006. The tomb o Rabbi Yehuda Ben Baba, a well-kent rabbi frae the 2nt century. who wis captured an executit bi the Romans, is still staundin in Shefa-'Amr an mony Jewish believers come tae visit it.
Christian steids[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Byzantine period tombs are locatit in the middle o the ceety. They wur the graves o the 5t an 6t century Christian community. The tomb entrances are decoratit wi sculpturs o lions an Greek inscriptions which mak mention o Jesus.
- In the center o the ceety, whaur the Sisters o Nazareth convent staunds the day, wis a 4t century kirk cried St. Jacob's Church. This kirk is mentioned in the notes o Christian kirk historians, although the kirk is no still staundin the day (the kirk o the monastery is whaur it wis). Some marble columns remain, like those uised tae build the earliest kirks.
- St. Peter & St. Paul Kirk is locatit in ane o the toun's peaks near the fort, it haes a heich bell touer an a lairge purple dome. The kirk wis built bi Otman, who made a promise tae build it if his fort wis finished successfully, so its history goes back tae that o the fort. The waws o the kirk stairtit tae get weak so in 1904 the whole kirk wis strengthened an impruivit. It remains staundin the day an is the main kirk o the Greek Catholic community o Shefa-'Amr.
Muslim steids[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Mosque o Ali Ibn Abi Talib (Auld Mosque) built near the castle in the days o Suleiman Pasha.
Notable residents[eedit | eedit soorce]
See an aa[eedit | eedit soorce]
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
- "Table 3 - Population of Localities Numbering Above 2,000 Residents and Other Rural Population". Israel Central Bureau of Statistics.
- Conder, Claude Reignier and H.H. Kitchener: The Survey of Western Palestine. London:Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund. (1881) I:343, Guerin, I, 414, TIR, 230. All cited in Petersen, 2002, p.276
- Denys Pringle (1997). Secular buildings in the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem : an archaeological gazetteer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 125. ISBN 0521460107.
- Abu Shama RHC (or.), IV, 487. Yaqut, p304, Both cited in Petersen, 2002, p. 277
- Ibn al-Furat, Cited in Petersen, 2002, p. 277
- Singer, A., 2002, p.126
- Heyd, 1960, p84-85,n.2. Cited in Petersen, 2002, p.277.
- Hütteroth, Wolf-Dieter and Kamal Abdulfattah (1977), Historical Geography of Palestine, Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late 16th Century. Erlanger Geographische Arbeiten, Sonderband 5. Erlangen, Germany: Vorstand der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft. p. 192. Quoted in Petersen, 2002, p.277
- Cohen, 1973, p.106. Cited in Petersen, 2002, p.277
- Cohen, 1973, p.25. Cited in Petersen, 2002, p.277
- Cohen, 1973, p.128. Cited in Petersen, 2002, p.277
- Wolf-Dieter Hütteroth and Kamal Abdulfattah (1977). Historical Geography of Palestine, Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late 16th Century. Erlanger Geographische Arbeiten, Sonderband 5. Erlangen, Germany: Vorstand der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft. p. 192.
- Alex Carmel, Peter Schäfer and Yossi Ben-Artzi (1990). The Jewish Settlement in Palestine, 634–1881. Beihefte zum Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients : Reihe B, Geisteswissenschaften; Nr. 88. Wiesbaden: Reichert. pp. 94,144.
- James Finn (1877). Byeways in Palestine. London: James Nisbet & Co. p. 243.
- C. R. Conder and H. H. Kitchener (1881). The Survey of Western Palestine I. London: The Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund. p. 272.
- J. B. Barron, ed. (1923). Palestine: Report and General Abstracts of the Census of 1922. Government of Palestine. Table XI.
- E. Mills, ed. (1932). Census of Palestine 1931. Population of Villages, Towns and Administrative Areas. Jerusalem: Government of Palestine. p. 96.
- Government of Palestine, Village Statistics, 1945.
- Sami Hadawi (1957). Land Ownership in Palestine. New York: Palestine Arab Refugee Office. p. 44.
- Kamen (1987). "After the Catastrophe I: The Arabs in Israel, 1948-51". Middle Eastern Studies 23: 453–495. doi:10.1080/00263208708700721.
- Sabri Jiryis (1973). "The Legal Structure for the Expropriation and Absorption of Arab Lands in Israel". Journal of Palestine Studies 2: 82–104. doi:10.1525/jps.1973.2.4.00p0099c.
- Sabri Jiryis (1976). "The Land Question in Israel". MERIP Reports 47: 5––20+24–26.
- Beit al-Musica Conservatory
- How the other fifth lives
Bibliography[eedit | eedit soorce]
|Wikimedia Commons haes media relatit tae Shefa-'Amr.|
- Abu Shama (d.1267) (1969): Livre des deux jardins ("The Book of Two Gardens"). Recueil des Historiens des Croisades, Cited in Petersen (2002).
- Cohen, A. (1973), Palestine in the Eighteenth Century: Patterns of Government and Administration, Hebrew University, Jerusalem. Cited in Petersen, (2002)
- Jeeran.com homepage
- Heyd, Uriel (1960): Ottoman Documents on Palestine, 1552-1615, Oxford University Press, Oxford. Cited in Petersen (2002)
- Herzog, Chaim and Shlomo Gazit, The Arab-Israeli Wars, Vintage books, 2005.
- Ze'ev Vilnai, "Shefa-'Amr, Between the past and the present",Jerusalem 1962.
- Petersen, Andrew (2002): A Gazetteer of Buildings in Muslim Palestine: Volume I (British Academy Monographs in Archaeology) Shafa Amr p. 276-280
- Rogers, Mary Eliza, (1865): Domestic Life in Palestine (Also cited in Pettersen, 2002,)
- Singer, A. (2002). Constructing Ottoman Beneficence: An Imperial Soup Kitchen in Jerusalem. Albany: State of New York Press.