Seljuq Empire

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Büyük Selçuklu Devleti
دولت سلجوقیان
Dawlat-i Saljūqiān
Great Seljuq Empire


Great Seljuq Empire in its zenith in 1092,
upon the daith o Malik Shah I
Caipital Nishapur
Hamadan, Wastren caipital (1118–1194)
Merv, Eastren caipital (1118–1153)
Government Monarchy
Sultan or Shah
 -  1037–1063 Toghrul I (first)
 -  1174–1194 Toghrul III (last)[5][6]
 -  Tughril formed the state seestem 1037
 -  Replaced bi the Khwarezmian Empire[7] 1194
 -  1080 est. 3,900,000 km² (1,505,798 sq mi)
Precedit bi
Succeedit bi
Ghaznavid Empire
Buyid dynasty
Sallarid dynasty
Byzantine Empire
Ghurid Dynasty
Khwarezmian Empire
Seljuk Sultanate o Rûm
Ayyubid dynasty
Atabegs o Azerbaijan
Burid dynasty
Zengid dynasty
Artuqid dynasty
The day pairt o

The Great Seljuq Empire (Persian: دولت سلجوقیان) wis a medieval Turko-Persie[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15] Sunni Muslim empire, oreeginatin frae the Qynyq branch o Oghuz Turks.[16] The Seljuq Empire controlled a vast aurie stretchin frae the Hindu Kush tae eastren Anatolie an frae Central Asie tae the Persie Gulf. Frae thair homelands near the Aral sea, the Seljuqs advanced first intae Khorasan an then intae mainland Persie afore eventually conquerin eastren Anatolie.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Savory, R. M. and Roger Savory, Introduction to Islamic civilisation, (Cambridge University Press, 1976 ), 82.
  2. Black, Edwin, Banking on Baghdad: inside Iraq's 7,000-year history of war, profit and conflict, (John Wiley and sons, 2004), 38.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 C.E. Bosworth, "Turkish Expansion towards the west" in UNESCO HISTORY OF HUMANITY, Volume IV, titled "From the Seventh to the Sixteenth Century", UNESCO Publishing / Routledge, p. 391: "While the Arabic language retained its primacy in such spheres as law, theology and science, the culture of the Seljuk court and secular literature within the sultanate became largely Persianized; this is seen in the early adoption of Persian epic names by the Seljuk rulers (Qubād, Kay Khusraw and so on) and in the use of Persian as a literary language (Turkish must have been essentially a vehicle for everyday speech at this time)
  4. Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world, Ed. Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie, (Elsevier Ltd., 2009), 1110;Oghuz Turkic is first represented by Old Anatolian Turkish which was a subordinate written medium until the end of the Seljuk rule.".
  5. A New General Biographical Dictionary, Vol.2, Ed. Hugh James Rose, (London, 1853), 214.
  6. Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (New Brunswick:Rutgers University Press, 1988), 167.
  7. Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (New Brunswick:Rutgers University Press, 1988),159,161; "In 1194, Togrul III would succumb to the onslaught of the Khwarizmian Turks, who were destined at last to succeed the Seljuks to the empire of the Middle East."
  8. Aḥmad of Niǧde's "al-Walad al-Shafīq" and the Seljuk Past, A. C. S. Peacock, Anatolian Studies, Vol. 54, (2004), 97; With the growth of Seljuk power in Rum, a more highly developed Muslim cultural life, based on the Persianate culture of the Great Seljuk court, was able to take root in Anatolia.
  9. Meisami, Julie Scott, Persian Historiography to the End of the Twelfth Century, (Edinburgh University Press, 1999), 143; Nizam al-Mulk also attempted to organise the Saljuq administration according to the Persianate Ghaznavid model..
  10. M.A. Amir-Moezzi, "Shahrbanu", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK): "... here one might bear in mind that non-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia rather than to Turkmen heroes or Muslim saints ..."
  11. Josef W. Meri, "Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia", Routledge, 2005, p. 399
  12. Michael Mandelbaum, "Central Asia and the World", Council on Foreign Relations (May 1994), p. 79
  13. Jonathan Dewald, "Europe 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World", Charles Scribner's Sons, 2004, p. 24: "Turcoman armies coming from the East had driven the Byzantines out of much of Asia Minor and established the Persianized sultanate of the Seljuks."
  14. Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 161,164; "..renewed the Seljuk attempt to found a great Turko-Persian empire in eastern Iran..", "It is to be noted that the Seljuks, those Turkomans who became sultans of Persia, did not Turkify Persia-no doubt because they did not wish to do so. On the contrary, it was they who voluntarily became Persians and who, in the manner of the great old Sassanid kings, strove to protect the Iranian populations from the plundering of Ghuzz bands and save Iranian culture from the Turkoman menace."
  15. Possessors and possessed: museums, archaeology, and the visualization of history in the late Ottoman Empire; By Wendy M. K. Shaw; Published by University of California Press, 2003, ISBN 0520233352, 9780520233355; p. 5.
    • Jackson, P. (2002). "Review: The History of the Seljuq Turkmens: The History of the Seljuq Turkmens". Journal of Islamic Studies (Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies) 13 (1): 75–76. doi:10.1093/jis/13.1.75. 
    • Bosworth, C. E. (2001). Notes on Some Turkish Names in Abu 'l-Fadl Bayhaqi's Tarikh-i Mas'udi. Oriens, Vol. 36, 2001 (2001), pp. 299-313.
    • Dani, A. H., Masson, V. M. (Eds), Asimova, M. S. (Eds), Litvinsky, B. A. (Eds), Boaworth, C. E. (Eds). (1999). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (Pvt. Ltd).
    • Hancock, I. (2006). ON ROMANI ORIGINS AND IDENTITY. The Romani Archives and Documentation Center. The University of Texas at Austin.
    • Asimov, M. S., Bosworth, C. E. (eds.). (1998). History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. IV: The Age of Achievement: AD 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century, Part One: The Historical, Social and Economic Setting. Multiple History Series. Paris: UNESCO Publishing.
    • Dani, A. H., Masson, V. M. (Eds), Asimova, M. S. (Eds), Litvinsky, B. A. (Eds), Boaworth, C. E. (Eds). (1999). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (Pvt. Ltd).