Rowing is a sport in which athletes race against each other oan rivers, oan lochs ur oan th' brine, dependin' upon th' type ay race an' th' discipline. th' boats ur propelled by th' reaction forces oan th' oar blades as they ur pushed against th' water. th' sport can be baith recreational, focusin' oan learnin' th' techniques required,speed rower, competitife rowin'. Retrieved on 5 Februar 2009. . an' competitife whaur overaa fitness plays a large role. it is also a body ay th' oldest olympic sports. in th' united states, high skale an' collegiate rowing is sometimes referred tae as crew. and competitive where overall fitness plays a large role. It is also one of the oldest Olympic sports. In the United States, high school and collegiate rowing is sometimes referred to as crew.Crew - definition. TheFreeDictionary. Retrieved on 2 Januar 2007. . ">
Table o contents
Basic Information 
while rowin', th' athlete sits in th' boat facin' backwards (towards th' stern), an' uses th' oars which ur held in place by th' oarlocks tae propel th' boat forward (towards th' bow). thes main be dain oan a river, loch, brine, ur other large body ay water. it is a demandin' sport requirin' strang cair balance an aw as physical loch an' cardiovascular endurance.introduction. basic rowin' physiology. Retrieved on 2 Januar 2007. . whilst th' action ay rowin' an' equipment used remains fairly consistent throoghit th' warld, thaur ur mony different types ay competition. these include endurance races, time trials, stake racin', bumps racing, an' th' side-by-side format used in th' olympic games. th' mony different formats ur a result ay th' lang history ay th' sport, its development in different regions ay th' warld, an' specific local requirements an' restrictions. thaur ur tois forms ay rowing: * in sweep ur sweep-oar rowin', each rower has a body oar, held wi' baith hans. thes can be dain in pairs, foors an' eights. each rower in a sweep boat is referred tae either as port ur starboard, dependin' oan which side ay th' boat th' rower's oar extends tae. usually th' port side is referred tae as stroke side, an' th' starboard side as baw side; thes applies e'en if th' stroke oarsman is rowin' oan baw side and/ur th' baw oarsman oan stroke side. * in sculling each rower has tois oars (ur sculls), a body in each hain. scullin' is usually dain withit a coxswain, in quads, doobles ur singles. th' oar in th' sculler's reit hain extends tae port (stroke side), an' th' oar in th' left hain extends tae starboard (baw side).
anatomy ay a stroke 
the tois fundamental reference points in th' rowin' stroke ur th' catch, immediately priur tae th' oar blade's placement in th' water, an' th' extraction (also knoon as th' finish ur th' release) whaur th' rower removes th' oar blade frae th' water. frae th' catch, th' rower places th' blade in th' water, 'en applies pressure tae th' oar by simultaneoosly pushin' th' seat toward th' baw ay th' boat by extendin' th' legs. as th' legs approach foo extension, th' rower rotates his ur 'er torso toward th' baw ay th' boat an' 'en finally pulls th' arms towards his ur 'er chest. th' shoolders shoods nae hunch up at onie point durin' th' drife. at th' huir uv a end ay th' stroke, wi' th' blade still in th' water, th' hans drap slightly tae unload th' oar sae 'at sprin' energy stored in th' bend ay th' oar gits transferred tae th' boat, which eases removin' th' oar frae th' water an' minimizes energy wasted oan liftin' water abune th' surface (splashing). th' aforementioned stages ay th' stroke whaur pressure is applied tae th' blade ben th' water comprise th' drife ay th' stroke. the recovery phase follows th' drife. th' recovery involves removin' th' oar frae th' water, an' coordinatin' th' body movement tae move th' oar tae th' catch. th' coordinated body motion 'at begins at th' finish consists ay th' following: th' rower pushes doon oan th' oar handle (ur oar handles if th' rower is sculling) tae quickly lift th' blade frae th' water at th' release. followin' th' release, th' rower rapidly rotates th' oar tae cause th' blade ay th' oar tae become parallel tae th' water (a process referred tae as "feaitherin' th' blade") at th' sam time as pushin' th' oar handle awa' frae th' chest. efter feaitherin' an' extendin' th' arms, th' rower rotates his ur 'er body forward. ance th' hans ur pest th' knees, th' rower compresses th' legs which moves th' seat towards th' stern ay th' boat. th' leg compression occurs relatively slowly (compared wi' lae ay th' stroke) which affords th' rower a moment tae "recover" (hence th' recovery nomenclature), an' allows th' boat tae glide ben th' water. near th' end ay th' recovery, th' rower squares th' blade (rotates th' blade tae perpendicular tae th' water), an' 'en repeats th' stroke again, beginnin' wi' th' catch.british rowin' technique. the amateur rowin' association. Archived from the original on 19 Februar 2007. . Retrieved on 23 Dizember 2006. . in a multi-person boat, th' abune motion main be executed in precise synchrony wi' aw other rowers in th' sheel. coordinated timin' at th' catch is imperatife tae avoid "checking" th' boat, ur slowin' its forward progress. ideally, aw rowers arrife at th' catch at exactly th' sam moment, an' immediately apply pressure oan th' oar wi' th' oar in th' water which minimizes jerk at th' catch. tae accomplish thes, th' oar main be in th' water slightly in advance ay th' rower's arrival at th' catch whaur th' seat reverses direction. when thes action is completed correctly a bit ay water, called "back splash" is splashed.
breathin' durin' a rowin' stroke 
thaur ur tois schools ay thooght wi' respect tae th' appropriate breathin' technique durin' th' rowin' motion: foo lungs at th' catch an' boss lungs at th' finish. with th' foo lung technique, rowers exhale durin' th' stroke an' inhale durin' th' recovery. in laboored circumstances, rowers will tak' a quick pant at th' end ay th' stroke afair takin' a deep breath oan th' recovery 'at fills th' lungs by th' time th' catch is reached. in th' empty-lung technique, rowers inhale durin' th' drife, an' exhale durin' th' recovery sae 'at they hae boss lungs at th' catch. coz th' knees come up tae th' chest when th' lungs ur boss, thes technique allows th' rower tae reach a wee bit further than if th' lungs waur foo ay air. additionally, thes technique allows th' thighs tae compress th' chest, collapsin' th' lungs further than normal, thus inducin' greater air (ain oxygen) volume exchange durin' each breath. a scientific study ay th' benefits ay entrained breathin' technique in relatively fit, but untrained rowers did nae shaw onie physiological ur psychological benefit tae either technique.maclennan, susan e.; silvestri, gerard a.; ward, joseph; mahler, donald a., 1994. diz entrained breathin' improve th' economy ay rowin'? medicine & science in sports & exercise 26(5): 610-614.
rowin' propulsion 
rowin' is a cyclic (ur intermittent) f'rm ay propulsion sic' 'at in th' quasi steady-state th' motion ay th' system (the system comprisin' th' rower, th' oars, an' th' boat), is repeated regularly. in order tae maintain th' steady-state propulsion ay th' system withit either acceleratin' ur deceleratin' th' system, th' sum ay aw th' external forces oan th' system, averaged ower th' cycle, main be zero. thus, th' average drag (retarding) force oan th' system main equal th' average propulsion force oan th' system. th' drag forces consist ay aerodynamic drag oan th' superstructure ay th' system (components ay th' boat situated abune th' waterline), an aw as th' hydrodynamic drag oan th' submerged portion ay th' system. th' propulsion forces ur th' forward reaction ay th' water oan th' oars while in th' water. note also 'at th' oar can be used tae provide a drag force (a force actin' against th' forward motion) when th' system is brooght tae rest. althoogh th' oar can be conveniently thooght ay as a lever wi' a "fixed" pivot point in th' water, th' blade moves sideways an' sternwards ben th' water, sae 'at th' magnitude ay th' propulsion force developed is th' result ay a complex interaction atween unsteady fluid mechanics (the water flaw aroond th' blade) an' solid mechanics an' dynamics (the handle force applied tae th' oar, th' oar's inertia an' bendin' characteristic, th' acceleration ay th' boat an' sae on). === distinction frae other watercraft ===
- Main airticle: watercraft rowing the distinction atween rowin' an' other forms ay water transport, sic' as canoein' ur kayakin', is 'at in rowin' th' oars ur held in place at a pivot point 'at is in a fixed position relatife tae th' boat, thes point actin' as a fulcrum fur th' oar tae act as a lever. in flatwater rowin', th' boat (also called a shell ur fine boat) is narraw tae avoid drag, an' th' oars ur attached tae oarlocks at th' end ay ootriggers extendin' frae th' sides ay th' boat.resistance. basic physics ay rowing. Retrieved on 2 Januar 2007. . racin' boats also hae slidin' seats tae allaw th' use ay th' legs in addition tae th' body tae apply power tae th' oar. loch racin' kayaks ur canoes, most racin' shells ur inherently unstable. th' rowin' boats require oars oan either side tae prevent them frae rollin' ower.
fitness an' health 
Rowin' is a body ay th' few non-weecht bearin' sports 'at exercises aw th' majur muscle groops, includin' quads, biceps, triceps, lats, glutes an' abdominal muscles. rowin' improves cardiovascular endurance an' muscular strength. high-performance rowers tend tae be taa an' muscular: althoogh extra weecht diz increase th' drag oan th' boat, th' larger athlete's increased power tends tae be mair significant. th' increased power is achieved ben increased length ay leverage oan th' oar ben longer limbs ay th' athlete. in multi-rower boats (2,4,ur 8), th' lightest bodie typically rows in th' baw seat at th' front ay th' boat. rowin' is a law impact activity wi' movement only in defined ranges, sae twist an' sprain injuries ur raur. however, th' repetitife rowin' action can pit strain oan knee joints, th' spine an' th' tendons ay th' forearm, an' inflammation ay these ur th' most common rowin' injuries. if a body rows wi' puir technique, especially rowin' wi' a curved raither than straecht back, other injuries main surface, includin' back pains. British Rowing Technique. The Amateur Rowing Association. Archived from the original on 19 Februar 2007. . Retrieved on 23 Dizember 2006. . In a multi-person boat, the above motion must be executed in precise synchrony with all other rowers in the shell. Coordinated timing at the catch is imperative to avoid "checking" the boat, or slowing its forward progress. Ideally, all rowers arrive at the catch at exactly the same moment, and immediately apply pressure on the oar with the oar in the water which minimizes jerk at the catch. To accomplish this, the oar must be in the water slightly in advance of the rower's arrival at the catch where the seat reverses direction. When this action is completed correctly a bit of water, called "back splash" is splashed.
Breathing during a rowing stroke 
There are two schools of thought with respect to the appropriate breathing technique during the rowing motion: Full lungs at the catch and empty lungs at the finish. With the full lung technique, rowers exhale during the stroke and inhale during the recovery. In laboured circumstances, rowers will take a quick pant at the end of the stroke before taking a deep breath on the recovery that fills the lungs by the time the catch is reached. In the empty-lung technique, rowers inhale during the drive, and exhale during the recovery so that they have empty lungs at the catch. Because the knees come up to the chest when the lungs are empty, this technique allows the rower to reach a little bit further than if the lungs were full of air. Additionally, this technique allows the thighs to compress the chest, collapsing the lungs further than normal, thus inducing greater air (and oxygen) volume exchange during each breath. A scientific study of the benefits of entrained breathing technique in relatively fit, but untrained rowers did not show any physiological or psychological benefit to either technique.MACLENNAN, SUSAN E.; SILVESTRI, GERARD A.; WARD, JOSEPH; MAHLER, DONALD A., 1994. Does entrained breathing improve the economy of rowing? Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 26(5): 610-614.
Rowing propulsion 
Rowing is a cyclic (or intermittent) form of propulsion such that in the quasi steady-state the motion of the system (the system comprising the rower, the oars, and the boat), is repeated regularly. In order to maintain the steady-state propulsion of the system without either accelerating or decelerating the system, the sum of all the external forces on the system, averaged over the cycle, must be zero. Thus, the average drag (retarding) force on the system must equal the average propulsion force on the system. The drag forces consist of aerodynamic drag on the superstructure of the system (components of the boat situated above the waterline), as well as the hydrodynamic drag on the submerged portion of the system. The propulsion forces are the forward reaction of the water on the oars while in the water. Note also that the oar can be used to provide a drag force (a force acting against the forward motion) when the system is brought to rest. Although the oar can be conveniently thought of as a lever with a "fixed" pivot point in the water, the blade moves sideways and sternwards through the water, so that the magnitude of the propulsion force developed is the result of a complex interaction between unsteady fluid mechanics (the water flow around the blade) and solid mechanics and dynamics (the handle force applied to the oar, the oar's inertia and bending characteristic, the acceleration of the boat and so on).
Distinction from other watercraft 
The distinction between rowing and other forms of water transport, such as canoeing or kayaking, is that in rowing the oars are held in place at a pivot point that is in a fixed position relative to the boat, this point acting as a fulcrum for the oar to act as a lever. In flatwater rowing, the boat (also called a shell or fine boat) is narrow to avoid drag, and the oars are attached to oarlocks at the end of outriggers extending from the sides of the boat.Resistance. Basic Physics of Rowing. Retrieved on 2 Januar 2007. . Racing boats also have sliding seats to allow the use of the legs in addition to the body to apply power to the oar. Like racing kayaks or canoes, most racing shells are inherently unstable. The rowing boats require oars on either side to prevent them from rolling over.
Fitness and health 
Rowing is one of the few non-weight bearing sports that exercises all the major muscle groups, including quads, biceps, triceps, lats, glutes and abdominal muscles. Rowing improves cardiovascular endurance and muscular strength. High-performance rowers tend to be tall and muscular: although extra weight does increase the drag on the boat, the larger athlete's increased power tends to be more significant. The increased power is achieved through increased length of leverage on the oar through longer limbs of the athlete. In multi-rower boats (2,4,or 8), the lightest person typically rows in the bow seat at the front of the boat. Rowing is a low impact activity with movement only in defined ranges, so twist and sprain injuries are rare. However, the repetitive rowing action can put strain on knee joints, the spine and the tendons of the forearm, and inflammation of these are the most common rowing injuries. If one rows with poor technique, especially rowing with a curved rather than straight back, other injuries may surface, including back pains.">