Rostock

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Rostock
New Market (Neuer Markt) in Rostock

Flag

Coat of arms
Rostock   is located in Germany
Rostock
Rostock
Coordinates: 54°5′0″N 12°8′0″E / 54.08333°N 12.13333°E / 54.08333; 12.13333Coordinates: 54°5′0″N 12°8′0″E / 54.08333°N 12.13333°E / 54.08333; 12.13333
Kintra Germany
State Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
Destrict Urban district
Subdivisions 21 burghs
Government
 • Laird Mayor Roland Methling (Ind.)
Area
 • Total 181.44 km2 (70.05 sq mi)
Elevation 13 m (43 ft)
Population (2011-12-31)[1]
 • Total 204,260
 • Density 1,100/km2 (2,900/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes 18001–18147
Diallin codes 0381
Vehicle registration HRO
Website www.rostock.de

Rostock (German pronunciation: [ˈʁɔstɔk] is the lairgest ceety in the north German state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Rostock is locatit on the Warnow river; the quairter o Warnemünde 12 km north o the ceety centre lees directly on the coast o the Baltic Sea.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Early history[eedit | eedit soorce]

Confirmation o Lübeck law ceety richts, 1218

In the 11t century Polabian Slavs foondit a settlement at the Warnow river cried Roztoc (which means broadenin o a river); the name Rostock is derived frae that designation. The Dens keeng Valdemar I set the toun aflame in 1161.

Efterwards the place wis settled bi German traders. Initially there wur three separate ceeties:

  1. Altstadt (Auld Toun) aroond the Alter Markt (Auld Mercat) wi St. Petri (St. Peter's Kirk),
  2. Mittelstadt (Middle Toun) aroond the Neuer Markt (New Mercat) wi St. Marien (St. Mary's Church) and
  3. Neustadt (New Toun) aroond the Hopfenmarkt (Hop Mercat, nou University Square) wi St. Jakobi (St. James's Kirk, nou demolished).

Hanseatic League[eedit | eedit soorce]

The rise o the ceety began wi its membership o the Hanseatic League. In the 14t century it was a pouerful seaport toun wi 12,000 inhabitants an the biggest ceety o Mecklenburg. Ships for cruisin the Baltic Sea wur constructit in Rostock. In 1419 ane o the auldest universities in Northren Europe, the University o Rostock, wis foondit.

15t tae 18t century[eedit | eedit soorce]

At the end o the 15t century the dukes o Mecklenburg succeedit in enforcin their rule ower the toun o Rostock, which haed till then been anerlie nominally subject tae their rule an essentially independent. They teuk advantage o a riot kent as Domfehde, a failed uprisin o the impoverished population. Subsequent quarrels wi the dukes an persistent plunderin led ultimately tae a loss o economic an poleetical pouer.

Rostock 1780-90

The strategic location o Rostock provoked the envy o its rivals. Danes an Swades occupeed the ceety twice, first durin the Thirty Years' War (1618–48) an again frae 1700 tae 1721. Later, the French, unner Napoleon, occupeed the toun for aboot a decade till 1813. It wis in nearbi Lübeck-Ratekau that Blücher, who wis actually born in Rostock an who wis ane o few generals tae fecht on efter the Battle o Jena, surrendered tae the French in 1806. This wis anerlie efter furious street fechtin in the Battle o Lübeck, in which he led some o the cavalry chairges hissel; the exhaustit Proushies haed, bi the time o the surrender, neither fuid nor ammunition.

19t century[eedit | eedit soorce]

In the first half o the 19t century Rostock regained hintle o its economic importance, at first due tae the wheat trade, an frae the 1850s, tae industry, especially tae its shipyards. The first propeller-driven steamers in Germany wur constructit here.

The ceety grew in size an population, wi new quarters emergin in the sooth an wast o the auncient borders o the ceety. Twa notable developments wur addit tae hoose the increasin population at aroond 1900:

  1. Steintor-Vorstadt in the sooth, stretchin frae the auld ceety waw tae the facilities o the new Lloydbahnhof Railway Station (nou Hauptbahnhof). It wis designed as a livin quarter an consists maistly o lairge single hooses, ance inhabitit bi walthy citizens.
  2. Kröpeliner-Tor-Vorstadt in the wast, designed tae hoose the wirkin population as well as smawer an lairger industrial facilities such as Mahn & Ohlerich's Brewery (nou Hanseatische Brauerei Rostock). The main shipyard, Neptun wis juist nearbi at the shore o the river.

20t century[eedit | eedit soorce]

Rostock 1910

In the 20t century, important aircraft manufacturin facilities wur situatit in the ceety, such as the Arado Flugzeugwerke in Warnemünde an the Heinkel Works wi facilities at various places. It wis at their facilities in Rostock-Marienehe that the warld's jet plane made its test flichts. Aeroplane construction ceased at the end o the Seicont Warld War.

Lairge pairts o the central ceety wur destroyed in Warld War II by Allied bombing in 1942 and 1945. Through reconstruction an subsequent extension, the ceety became a major industrial centre o the German Democratic Republic wi the port being developed as the primary gate tae the warld. Hintle o the historic centre haes been faithfully rebuilt an hintle o its historic character restored. This includes several biggins characterised bi vertical brick ribs, a style common tae the Hanseatic touns.

The destroyed ceety in 1942

Follaein the reunification o Germany in 1989/1990, Rostock lost its prior privileged position as the principal owerseas port o the umwhile GDR an became ane o several German ports, nou locatit in ane o the least industrialised regions o reunitit Germany. Despite lairge infrastructur investments, the ceety's economy declined in the 1990s but is nou growin again.

Demographics[eedit | eedit soorce]

Rostock's population dropped frae nearly 260,000 in 1989 tae aboot 200,000 the day, primarily due tae suburbanisation but an aa due tae emigration tae mair prosperous wastren regions o Germany.

Politics[eedit | eedit soorce]

Seembols[eedit | eedit soorce]

Coat o Airms

In Rostock's lang history, the ceety carried three different coats o airms kent as the Signum, Secretum an Sigillum. The Signum, which can be traced back tae 1367, wis developed last an is tae this day the coat o airms o the ceety.

The flag depicts a gowden griffin on a blue backgrund as well as the colours o the Hanseatic League, siller an red.

The coat o airms can no anerlie be seen on banners, hooses an at bus stops, but an aa on brigs, gullies, fences, ships an restaurants.

Admeenistration[eedit | eedit soorce]

Syne the 13t century, the govrening body o the ceety haes been the ceety cooncil (Rat), first consistin o ten, later o 24 aldermen (Ratsherren). The chairman o the ceety cooncil wis the ceety mayor. In the 19t century there wur even three mayors. Syne 1925, the heid o the ceety haes born the title o Laird Mayor. Haein been electit for centuries bi the ceety cooncil, he is nou electit directly bi the citizens o Rostock, follaein a reform in 2002.

Ceety Haw

The ceety parliament (Bürgerschaft) represents the citizens. Representative are electit for five years. The number o representatives is currently 53.

The ceety parliament is presidit bi the Präsident der Bürgerschaft. He heids an prepares the sessions an, thegither wi the Laird Mayor, represents the ceety.

Roland Methling (Independent), wis electit Laird Mayor o Rostock in the first roond bi 58,2% o the voters on 27 Februar 2005.

Pairtner ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Rostock haes signed pairtnership greements wi the follaein ceeties:

Poland Szczecin, Poland, syne 1957 Norawa Bergen, Norawa, syne 1965
Finland Turku, Finland, syne 1959 Bulgarie Varna, Bulgarie, syne 1966
Fraunce Dunkirk, Fraunce, syne 1960 Croatie Rijeka, Croatie, since 1966
Latvie Riga, Latvie, syne 1961[2] Germany Bremen, Germany syne 1987
Belgium Antwerp, Belgium, syne 1963 Fowkrepublic o Cheenae Dalian, Fowkrepublic o Cheenae, syne 1988
Denmark Aarhus, Denmark, syne 1964 Unitit States Raleigh, USA, syne 2001
Swaden Gothenburg, Swaden, syne 1965

Mairower, Rostock is a member o the internaitional netwirk New Hanse.

Geography[eedit | eedit soorce]

Rostock is locatit nearly centrally on Mecklenburg-Vorpommern's Baltic Sea coast. The ceety is crossed bi the Warnow.

The seaside pairt o Rostock, Rostock-Warnemünde, is aboot 16 km tae the north o the historic ceety centre. The wast an the sootheast are the maist densely populatit pairts o toun. The owerseas port is tae the east o Rostock. Rostock stretches 21.6 kilometres frae the Baltic Sea tae the sooth an 19.4 km frae east tae wast.

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Climate data for Rostock
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record heich °C (°F) 11
(52)
15
(59)
21
(70)
26
(79)
31
(88)
33
(91)
34
(93)
32
(90)
29
(84)
22
(72)
15
(59)
14
(57)
34
(93)
Average heich °C (°F) 2
(36)
2
(36)
7
(45)
11
(52)
17
(63)
20
(68)
22
(72)
21
(70)
18
(64)
12
(54)
7
(45)
3
(37)
12
(54)
Average laich °C (°F) −2
(28)
−3
(27)
−1
(30)
3
(37)
7
(45)
10
(50)
13
(55)
13
(55)
9
(48)
6
(43)
2
(36)
−1
(30)
5
(41)
Record laich °C (°F) −18
(0)
−20
(−4)
−18
(0)
−5
(23)
−3
(27)
2
(36)
6
(43)
5
(41)
1
(34)
−5
(23)
−9
(16)
−16
(3)
−20
(−4)
Precipitation mm (inches) 46
(1.81)
36
(1.42)
30
(1.18)
42
(1.65)
48
(1.89)
60
(2.36)
79
(3.11)
71
(2.8)
69
(2.72)
65
(2.56)
39
(1.54)
45
(1.77)
630
(24.8)
Source: BBC Weather [3]

Main sichts[eedit | eedit soorce]

Rostock[eedit | eedit soorce]

Heiligengeisthof (Holy Spirit Courtyard).

Ane o the maist picturesque places in Rostock is the Neuer Markt (New Mercat Square), wi the Toun Haw (oreeginally built in the 13t century in Brick Gothic style, but extensively transformed in the 18t century, wi the addition o a Baroque facade an a Banquetin Haw. The square an aa preserved sax oreeginal, beautifully restored, gable hooses frae the 15t an 16t centuries. (The rest o the auld hooses in Hanseatic style that ance bordered the square wur destroyed in an Alleed air-raid in 1942.)

The 15t-century Kerkhofhaus (at Große Wasserstraße, ahint the Toun Haw) is considered the best preserved brick Gothic hoose in Rostock.

St. Mary`s Kirk Marienkirche, on Ziegenmarkt, is an imposin Brick Gothic kirk. Built in the 13t century, it wis enlairged an modifeed at the end o the 14t century intae the present cross-shaped basilica. The huge touer wis no completit till the end o the 18t century. Inside there is an astronomical clock built in 1472 bi Hans Düringer.

Kröpeliner Straße - the main shoppin street.

The main pedestrian precinct is Kröpeliner Straße, that runs east frae the Neuer Markt tae the 14t-century Kröpeliner Tor, a umwhile toun gate. The main biggins o Rostock University lie at Universitätsplatz, near the middle o the street, in front o the lively foontain o zest for life (Brunnen der Lebensfreude).

The Kloster St Katharinen (Convent of St. Catherine), an auld Franciscan monastery foondit in 1243, an extendit several times durin the 14t an 15t centuries. Nou uised as the seat o the Academy of Music and Theatre (HMT-Rostock).

The Brick Gothic Nikolaikirche (St. Nicholas Kirk), which is the auldest kirk in Rostock, built in mid-13t century. Hivily damaged durin Warld War II an subsequently restored, the biggin is nou uised as an exhibition center an concert haw, due tae its ootstaundin acoustics.

Some pairts o the medieval ceety waw, wi fower toun gates, still remain.

Warnemünde[eedit | eedit soorce]

Alexandrinenstraße in Warnemünde.
Speicher (office biggins) at nicht. Heidquarters o AIDA Cruises.

Warnemünde is the seaside pairt o Rostock an a major attraction o the ceety. Locals an tourists alike enjoy the maritime flair o auld hooses, a lairge beach, a lichthoose an the auld fisherman port.

Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]

The economy is strangly influenced bi tourism, the University o Rostock an maritime industries (especially shipbiggin) an the service sector. Major companies include:

Furthermore, Rostock is the seivent-lairgest port o the Baltic Sea, an amang the lairgest in Germany.

Education[eedit | eedit soorce]

University o Rostock.

Rostock is hame tae ane o the auldest universities in the warld. Foondit in 1419, the University o Rostock is the third auldest university in Germany in continuous operation, the seicont auldest in Northren Europe (efter St Andrews) an the auldest university in continental northren Europe. It affers graduate an postgraduate programmes in evangelical theology, philosophy an airts, natural sciences an mathematics, law, ingineerin an naval airchitectur, agricultur an environmental science, medicine, state, an poleetical an social science, an an' a' maintains a botanical garden (the Botanischer Garten Universität Rostock).

The Academy o Muisic an Theatre, Hochschule für Musik und Theater, affers graduate degrees in airtistic fields. Foondit in 1994, the institution combined the umwhile drama schuil Ernst Busch an the ootpost schuil o the Hanns Eisler Music School Berlin. The day, the schuil is a member the Association o Baltic Academies o Muisic (ABAM), a union o 17 muisic conservatories at the Baltic Sea an Israel. Unique in Europe is the postgraduate degree in piano duo performance. The schuil possesses a lairge opera stage (Katharinensaal) an twa chamber muisic haws. There are concerts ivery day through the whole year.

Rostock hosts an aw the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, the Leibniz Institute for Catalysis as well as twa branches o Fraunhofer Institutes, ane for Computer Graphic an ane for Lairge Structurs in Production Technology.

Cultur[eedit | eedit soorce]

Theater im Stadthafen

Events[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety is hame tae the annual Hanse Sail festival, durin which mony lairge sailin ships an museum vessels are brought oot tae sea, drawin ower 1.5 million visitors.

There is an annual Jazz festival takin place in Juin cried Ostsee-Jazz.

Further events include:

  • Kurfilmfestival FiSh
  • Rostocker Kulturwoche
  • Sommer der Kulturen
  • Rostocker Hafenfest
  • Boulevardfest
  • Warnemünder Woche

Museums an Zoo[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Kunsthalle Rostock (art gallery)
  • Kulturhistorisches Museum
  • Dokumentations- und Gedenkstätte der Bundesbeauftragten für die Unterlagen des Staatssicherheitsdienstes der ehemaligen Deutschen Demokratischen Republik
  • Heimatmuseum Warnemünde
  • Schiffbau- und Schifffahrtsmuseum
  • Rostocker Zoo
  • Walter-Kempowski-Archiv

Muisic an theatre[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Volkstheater Rostock
    • Norddeutsche Philharmonie
    • Rostocker Singakademie
  • Niederdeutsche Bühne Rostock
  • Compagnie de Comédie
  • Kleine Komödie Warnemünde
  • Mechaje
  • Bühne 602
  • Festspiele Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
  • Ostsee Big Band (Jazz)

Sport[eedit | eedit soorce]

DKB-Arena, hame grund o Hansa Rostock
Club Sport Foondit League Venue Heid Coach
F.C. Hansa Rostock Fitbaa 1965 2. Bundesliga DKB-Arena Peter Vollmann
HC Empor Rostock Team handbaw 1954 2. Bundesliga Rostocker Stadthalle Maik Handschke
Piranhas Rostock Ice hockey 1990 Oberliga (3rd division) Eishalle Rostock Henry Thom

Transport[eedit | eedit soorce]

Rostock Hauptbahnhof (Central Station)
The cruise ship A'Rosa Blu leavin Rostock in simmer 2003

Caur[eedit | eedit soorce]

Rostock can be reached bi motorwa (Autobahn) A 1 frae Hamburg via Lübeck on A 20 an bi A 19 frae Berlin an A 20 frae Stettin in Poland.

Public transport[eedit | eedit soorce]

Transit map o Rostock (4 Januar 2012)

Rostock Hauptbahnhof (Rostock Central Station) offers fast rail connections tae Hamburg an Berlin an frae there tae amaist ony ither European ceety.

Athin the ceety a wide netwirk o trams, buses an ferries is available. The first privately financed tunnel in Germany crosses the Warnow river an thus connects the eastren pairt o Rostock wi the wastren pairt.

Ferry / Ship[eedit | eedit soorce]

Rostock harbour at sunset

Rostock is Germany's lairgest Baltic port. Rostock is an aa hame tae a lairge ferry port. It is a main base for ferry operators Scandlines, Tallink an TT-Line, which baith connect Rostock wi major Scandinavian destinations. Furthermair, Rostock receives the heichest numbers o cruise tourists in Germany per year.

Ferries leave for

Plane[eedit | eedit soorce]

The nearest international airports are in Hamburg and Berlin. There are connecting flights via Munich to Rostock Laage Airport. There are also a number of airfields for smaller aircraft, e.g. Purkshof.

Notable fowk[eedit | eedit soorce]

This is a, naturally, incomplete leet o notable fowk that wur born, lived or contributit tae the welfare o the Ceety o Rostock:

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Template:Destricts o Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

Template:Bezirke DDR Seats Template:Hanseatic League