Paracetamol

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Paracetamol
Paracetamol-skeletal.svg
Paracetamol-from-xtal-3D-balls.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name
N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethanamide
N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetamide
Cleenical data
Trade names Tylenol (USA), Anacin Aspirin Free (USA), Apra (USA), Crocin (Indie), Feverall (USA), Genapap (USA), Panadol (UK), Panadol (Australie), Panodil (Denmark), Efferalgan (Fraunce), Doliprane (Fraunce) Dafalgan (Fraunce) Alvedon (Swaden)
AHFS/Drugs.com monograph
MedlinePlus a681004
Licence data US FDA:link
Pregnancy cat. A (AU) B (US) safe
Legal status Unscheduled (AU) GSL (UK) OTC (US)
Routes Oral, rectal, intravenous
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability ~100%
Metabolism 90 tae 95% Hepatic
Hauf-life 1–4 h
Excretion Renal
Identifiers
CAS numner 103-90-2 YesY
ATC code N02BE01
PubChem CID 1983
DrugBank DB00316
ChemSpider 1906 YesY
UNII 362O9ITL9D YesY
KEGG D00217 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:46195 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL112 YesY
Chemical data
Formula C8H9NO2 
Mol. mass 151.17 g/mol
Physical data
Density 1.263 g/cm³
Melt. pynt 169 °C (336 °F) [2][3]
Solubility in watter 12.78[1] mg/mL (20 °C)
 YesY (what is this?)  (verify)

Paracetamol INN (/ˌpærəˈstəmɒl/ or /ˌpærəˈsɛtəmɒl/), or acetaminophen USAN Listeni/əˌstəˈmɪnəfɨn/, chemically named N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, is a widely uised ower-the-coonter analgesic (pain reliever) an antipyretic (fever reducer).

Paracetamol is classified as a mild analgesic. It is commonly uised for the relief o heidaches an ither minor aches an pains an is a major ingredient in numerous cauld an flu remedies. In combination wi opioid analgesics, paracetamol can an aa be uised in the management o mair severe pain such as post-surgical pain an providin palliative care in advanced cancer patients.[4] Though acetaminophen is used tae treat inflammatory pain, it is nae generally classified as an NSAID acause it exhibits anly weak anti-inflammatory activity.

The onset o analgesia is approximately 11-29.5 minutes efter oral admeenistration o paracetamol,[5] an its hauf-life is 1–4 oors. While generally safe for uise at recommendit doses (1,000 mg per single dose an up tae 4,000 mg per day for adults),[6] acute owerdoses o paracetamol can cause potentially fatal kidney, brain an liver damage an, in rare individuals, a normal dose can dae the same. The risk mey be hichtened bi chronic alcohol abuse. Paracetamol toxicity is the foremost cause o acute liver failure in the Wastren warld, an accoonts for maist drug owerdoses in the Unitit States, the Unitit Kinrick, Australie an New Zealand.[7][8][9][10]

It is the active metabolite o the coal tar–derived phenacetin, ance popular as an analgesic an antipyretic in its awn richt. However, unlike phenacetin an its combinations, paracetamol is nae considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses.[11] The wirds acetaminophen (uised in the Unitit States,[12] Canadae, Japan, Sooth Korea, Hong Kong, an Iran) an paracetamol (uised elsewhaur) baith come frae a chemical name for the compoond: para-acetylaminophenol an para-acetylaminophenol. In some contexts, it is simply abbreviated as APAP, for acetyl-para-aminophenol.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Granberg RA, Rasmuson AC (1999). "Solubility of paracetamol in pure solvents". Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data 44 (6): 1391–95. doi:10.1021/je990124v. 
  2. Karthikeyan, M.; Glen, R. C.; Bender, A. (2005). "General Melting Point Prediction Based on a Diverse Compound Data Set and Artificial Neural Networks". Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling 45 (3): 581–590. doi:10.1021/ci0500132. PMID 15921448.  edit
  3. "melting point data for paracetamol". Lxsrv7.oru.edu. Retrieved 2011-03-19. 
  4. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) (2008). "6.1 and 7.1.1". Guideline 106: Control of pain in adults with cancer. Scotland: National Health Service (NHS). ISBN 978 1 905813 38 4. 
  5. Moller, P.; Sindet-Pedersen, S.; Petersen, C.; Juhl, G.; Dillenschneider, A.; Skoglund, L. (2005). "Onset of acetaminophen analgesia: comparison of oral and intravenous routes after third molar surgery". British journal of anaesthesia 94 (5): 642–648. doi:10.1093/bja/aei109. PMID 15790675.  edit; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15790675
  6. Acetaminophen Drugs.com
  7. Daly FF, Fountain JS, Murray L, Graudins A, Buckley NA (2008). "Guidelines for the management of paracetamol poisoning in Australia and New Zealand—explanation and elaboration. A consensus statement from clinical toxicologists consulting to the Australasian poisons information centres". Med J Aust 188 (5): 296–301. PMID 18312195. 
  8. Khashab M, Tector AJ, Kwo PY (2007). "Epidemiology of acute liver failure". Curr Gastroenterol Rep 9 (1): 66–73. doi:10.1007/s11894-008-0023-x. PMID 17335680. 
  9. Hawkins LC, Edwards JN, Dargan PI (2007). "Impact of restricting paracetamol pack sizes on paracetamol poisoning in the United Kingdom: a review of the literature". Drug Saf 30 (6): 465–79. doi:10.2165/00002018-200730060-00002. PMID 17536874. 
  10. Larson AM, Polson J, Fontana RJ, et al. (2005). "Acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure: results of a United States multicenter, prospective study". Hepatology 42 (6): 1364–72. doi:10.1002/hep.20948. PMID 16317692. 
  11. Bergman K, Müller L, Teigen SW (1996). "The genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of paracetamol: a regulatory (re)view". Mutat Res 349 (2): 263–88. doi:10.1016/0027-5107(95)00185-9. PMID 8600357. 
  12. Bradley, N (1996). "BMJ should use "paracetamol" instead of "acetaminophen" in its index". BMJ 313 (7058): 689. PMC 2351967. PMID 8811774. 

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