Osh (Kyrgyz: Ош) is the seicont lairgest ceety in Kyrgyzstan, locatit in the Fergana Valley in the sooth o the kintra an aften referred tae as the "caipital o the sooth". The ceety is at least 3,000 years auld, an haes served as the administrative center o Osh Province since 1939. The ceety haes an ethnically mixed population o aboot 220,000 (in 2003), comprisin Kyrgyz, Uzbeks, Roushies, Tajiks, an ither smawer ethnic groups.
Osh is a lively place, wi the lairgest and maist croudit ootdoor market in aw o Central Asie. The ceety's industrial base, established during the Soviet period, lairgely collapsed efter the break-up o the Soviet Union an haes stairtit tae revive ae gradually. The proximity o the Uzbek border, which cuts through historically linkt territories an settlements, deprives Osh o muckle o its umwhile hinterland an presents a serious obstacle tae trade an economic development. Daily flichts link Osh - an hence the soothren pairt o Kyrgyzstan - tae Bishkek an the north, an the recent upgradin o the lang an arduous road through the muntains tae Bishkek haes greatly improved communications.
The ceety haes several monuments, includin ane tae the soothren Kyrgyz "queen" Kurmanjan Datka an ane o the few remainin statues o Lenin. A Roushie Orthodox kirk, reopened efter the demise o the Soviet Union, the lairgest mosque in the kintra (situatit beside the bazaar), an the 16t-century Rabat Abdul Khan Mosque can be foond here. The ae Warld Heritage Site in Kyrgyzstan, the Sulayman Muntain, affers a splendid view o Osh and its environs. A cave in the muntain is the site o a museum containin a collection o archaeological, geological an historical fynds an information aboot local flora an fauna.
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The ceety is amang the auldest settlements in Central Asie. Osh wis kent as early as the 8t century as a center for silk production alang the Silk Road. The famous tradin route crossed Alay Muntains tae reach Kashgar tae the east. In modren times, Osh haes become an aa the starting point o the Pamir Hieway crossin the Pamir Muntains tae end in Khorog, Tajikistan.
Babur, foonder o the Mughal dynasty o Indian emperors an descendant o Timurlane, wis born in nearbi Andijan (Uzbekistan) in the Fergana Valley an set oot frae there on his conquest o northren Indie. He allegedly pondered his future on Sulayman Muntain, concludin that the confines o the Fergana wad cramp his aspirations as a descendant o famous conquerin warrior princes. He wrote o the ceety:
"There are mony sayins aboot the excellence o Osh. On the sootheastren side o the Osh fortress is a well-proportioned muntain cried Bara-Koh, whaur, on its summit, Sultan Mahmud Khan built a pavilion. Farther doun, on a spur o the same muntain, A haed a porticoed pavilion built in 902 (1496-7)" 
Roushie an Soviet rule
The ceety wis occupied an annexed bi the Roushie Empire in 1876 when Roushie owerwhelmed the Central Asian khanates durin the so-cried "Great Game," the contest atween Breetain an Roushie for dominance in Central Asie.
1990 an 2010 riots
- Main airticle: Osh riots (1990)
In 1990, shortly afore the end o Soviet pouer in Central Asie, Osh an its environs experienced bloody ethnic clashes between Kyrgyz and Uzbeks, causing on the order of 1,000 daiths.
In 2010, efter riots in Bishkek an ither major Kyrgyz ceeties, Preses Kurmanbek Bakiyev teuk refuge in the ceety tae hide frae protesters denooncin his govrenment an its response tae the naition's strugglin economy. On 13 Mey 2010, Bakiyev supporters teuk ower govrenment biggins in Osh, an an' a' seized the airport, preventin interim govrenment offeecials frae landin. The protesters demandit Bakiyev's return, an forced the provincial govrenor tae flee. The umwhile Osh provincial govrenor Mamasadyk Bakirov wis reinstatit.
On 10 Juin 2010, riots eruptit in Osh, killin at least 400 an injurin thoosans o ithers. Local media reportit that gangs o young men airmed wi sticks an stanes smashed shop windaes an set caurs aflame in the ceety center. Several biggins an hames athort the ceety wur an aa set on fire. The ceety's polis force proved incapable o restorin order resultin in a state o emergency being declared a the airmy being mobilised.  The Kyrgyz intelligence agency claimed that the 2010 violence wis initiatit bi the just-deposed preses, Kurmanbek Bakiyev, who is said tae hae made a deal wi foreign narco-jihadist gangs: jihadists take ower soothren Kyrgyzstan an initiate a Sharia state in exchynge for the Bakiyev family's being returned tae controllin Bishkek. Housomeivver, tae the day nae serious proof haes been presentit tae the public an media. Accordin tae various sources, up tae 100,000 ethnic Uzbek refugees fled tae Uzbekistan. Mony refugee camps hae been organized in the Andijan, Fergana an Namangan regions o Uzbekistan for citizens o Kyrgyzstan who cross the border seekin safety.
- The Babur-nama Ed. & trans. Wheeler M. Thackston (New York) 2002 pp4-5
- "Former Kyrgyz President's Supporters Take Over Government Buildings In South". Radio Free Europe. 13 May 2010. Retrieved 13 May 2010.
- google.com 12 June 2010
- "Twelve killed in new wave of unrest in Kyrgyzstan". Associated Press. 10 June 2010. Retrieved 10 June 2010.
- Info on Osh On Osh State University's Medical Institute's website (Inglis)
- Offeecial wabsteid o Medical Institute, Osh State University
- Cety of Osh Offeecial wabsteid (in Roushie)
- The Spektator - Society, cultur an travel airticles on Kyrgyzstan an the Central Asian region