Olsztyn

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Olsztyn
Auld Toun

Flag

Coat of arms
Motto: Olsztyn – Miasto Młode Duchem…
(Olsztyn– ceety o a young spirit…)
Olsztyn is located in Poland
Olsztyn
Olsztyn
Coordinates: 53°47′N 20°30′E / 53.783°N 20.500°E / 53.783; 20.500
Kintra  Poland
Voivodeship Warmie-Masurie
Coonty ceety coonty
Established 14t century
Toun richts 1353
Government
 • Mayor Piotr Grzymowicz
Area
 • City 88.328 km2 (34.104 sq mi)
Highest elevation 154 m (505 ft)
Lowest elevation 88 m (289 ft)
Population (2009)
 • City 176,387
 • Density 2,000/km2 (5,200/sq mi)
 • Metro 270,000
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 10-001 to 11–041
Area code(s) +48 89
Caur plates NO
Website http://www.olsztyn.eu
Ordensburg castle built bi the Teutonic Knichts

Olsztyn [ˈɔlʂtɨn] ( listen) (German: Allenstein (Ltspkr.png listen); Auld Pols: Holstin; Auld Proushie: Alnāsteini; Lithuanie: Olštynas) is a ceety on the Łyna River in northeastren Poland. Olsztyn haes been the caipital o the Warmie-Masurie Voivodeship syne 1999. It wis previously in the Olsztyn Voivodeship (an in ither units in 1945–75 an 1975–98). The ceety haes coonty status.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

In 1346 the auld Posuhie Warmie forest in the vicinity wis cleared an a place wis selectit on the Alle, nou Łyna River, for a new settlement. The Teutonic Knichts began the construction o Ordensburg castle in 1347 as a stranghauld against the Auld Proushies, an the settlement o Allenstein wis first mentioned the follaein year. The German name Allenstein meant a castle on the Alle River. It became kent in Pols transliteration as Olsztyn. The settlement receivit municipal richts frae Johannes von Leysen on 31 October 1353, an the castle wis completit in 1397. Allenstein wis incorporatit intae the Kinrick o Poland durin the Pols-Lithuanie-Teutonic War in 1410 an in 1414 durin the Hunger War, but wis returned tae the monastic state o the Teutonic Knichts efter hostilities endit.

Allenstein joined the Proushie Confederation in 1440. It rebelled against the Teutonic Knichts in 1454 upon the ootbreak o the Thirteen Years' War an requestit protection frae the Pols Croun. Although the Teutonic Knichts captured the toun in the follaein year, it wis retaken bi Pols troops in 1463. The Seicont Peace o Thorn (1466) allocatit Allenstein an the Bishopric o Warmie as pairt o Ryal Proushie unner the sovereignty o the Croun o Poland. Frae 1516–21, Nicolaus Copernicus livit at the castle as admeenistrator o Allenstein an Mehlsack (Pieniężno); he wis in chairge o the defenses o Allenstein an Warmie durin the Pols-Teutonic War o 1519–21.

Allenstein wis sacked bi Swadish troops in 1655 an 1708 durin the Pols-Swadish wars, an the toun's population wis nearly wipit oot in 1710 bi epidemics o bubonic plague an cholera.

Allenstein wis annexed bi the Kinrick o Proushie in 1772 durin the First Pairtition o Poland. A Proushie census recordit a population o 1,770 fowk, predominantly fermers, in Allenstein, which wis admeenistered athin the Province o East Proushie. It wis visitit bi Napoleon Bonaparte in 1807 efter his victories ower the Proushie Airmy at Jena an Auerstedt. In 1825 the ceety wis inhabitit bi 1266 Poles an 1341 Germans[1] The German leid newspaper, Allensteiner Zeitung, wis first published in 1841. The toun hospital wis foondit in 1867.

Allenstein's Kopernikusplatz (now Plac Bema) in 1917

Allenstein became parit o the German Empire in 1871 durin the Proushie-led unification o Germany. Twa years later the ceety wis connectit bi railwey tae Thorn (Toruń). Its first Pols leid newspaper, the Gazeta Olsztyńska, wis foondit in 1886. Allenstein's infrastructur developit rapidly: gas wis instawed in 1890, telephones in 1892, public watter supply in 1898, an electricity in 1907. The ceety became the caipital o Regierungsbezirk Allenstein, a govrenment admeenistrative region in East Proushie, in 1905. Frae 1818–1910 the ceety wis admeenistered athin the East Proushie Allenstein Destrict, efter which it became an independent ceety.

Shortly efter the ootbreak o Warld War I, truips o the Roushie Empire captured Allenstein in 1914, but it wis recovered bi the Imperial German Airmy in the Battle o Tannenberg. The battle actually teuk place hintle closer tae Allenstein than Tannenberg (nou Stębark), but the victorious Germans, haein been defeatit in the medieval battle o Tannenberg, namit it as such for propaganda purposes). In 1920 durin the East Proushie plebiscite, Allenstein votit tae remain in German East Prussia insteid o becomin pairt o the Seicont Pols Republic. The fitbaa club SV Hindenburg Allenstein played in Allenstein frae 1921 tae 45. Efter the Nazi seizur o power in 1933, Poles an Jews in Allenstein wur increasingly persecutit. In 1935 the Wehrmacht made the ceety the seat o the Allenstein Militärische Bereich. It wis the hame o the 11t Infanterie Diveesion, the 11t Airtillery Regiment, an the 217th Infanterie Diveesion.

5-Pfennig stamp

In 1920 a plebiscite wis held tae determine whether the ceety's populace wished tae remain in East Proushie or become pairt o Poland. In order tae advertise the plebiscite, special postage stamps wur producit bi owerprintin German stamps an sauld frae 3 Aprile. Ane kynd o overprint read PLÉBISCITE / OLSZTYN / ALLENSTEIN, while the ither read TRAITÉ / DE / VERSAILLES / ART. 94 et 95 inside an oval whose border gave the full name o the plebiscite commission. Each owerprint wis appleed tae 14 denominations rangin frae 5 Pf tae 3 M.

The plebiscite wis held on 11 Julie, an producit 362,209 votes (97.8 %) for East Proushie an 7,980 votes (2.2 %) for Poland. The stamps became invalid on 20 August. Despite their short period o uise, amaist aw o the stamps are cheaply available baith uised an unuised.

On 12 October 1939, efter the invasion o Poland that began Warld War II, the Wehrmacht established an Aurie Heidquairters for Wehrkreis I that controlled the sub-auries o Allenstein, Lötzen (Giżycko) an Zichenau (Ciechanów). Beginnin in 1939, members o the Pols-speakin minority, especially members o the Union o Poles in Germany, wur deportit tae Nazi concentration camps.

Allenstein wis plundered an burnt bi the invadin Soviet Red Airmy on 22 Januar 1945, as the Eastren Front reached the ceety. Allenstein's German population evacuatit the region or wur subsequently expelled. On 2 August 1945, the ceety wis placit unner Pols admeenistration bi the Soviets (accordin tae the Potsdam Greement) an offeecially renamit tae Pols Olsztyn. In October 1945, the German population o Olsztyn wis expelled bi Order o the Ceety Commanders o Olsztyn an ordered tae assemble on 18 October at Karl Roensch Street barracks camp for transfer tae Germany an in the case o nan-compliance wur tae be put in a "punishment camp".

A tyre factory wis foondit in Olsztyn in 1967.

Geografie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Locatit in the northeast pairt o Poland in the "Thoosans Lakes Aurie"

Green belt[eedit | eedit soorce]

Mair than hauf o the forests occupeein 21.2 % o the ceety aurie form a single complex o the Municipal Forest (1050 ha) uised mainly for recreation an tourism purposes. Athin the Municipal Forest aurie are situatit twa peat-laund flora sanctuars, Mszar an Redykajny. Municipal greenery (560 ha, 6.5 % o the toun aurie) developit in the form of numerous pairks, green spots an three cemeteries ower a century-auld. The greenery includes 910 monuments o natur an groups o protectit trees in the form o beech, oak, maple an lime-lined avenues.

Lochs[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety is situatit in a loch region o forests an plains. There are 15 lochs inside the admeenistrative boonds o the ceety (13 wi auries greater than 1 ha). The oweraw aurie o lochs in Olsztyn is aboot 725 ha, which constitutes 8.25 % o the total ceety aurie.

Loch Aurie (ha) Maximum depth (m)
Loch Ukiel (a.k.a. Jezioro Krzywe) 412 43
Loch Kortowskie 89.7 17.2
Loch Track (a.k.a. Jezioro Trackie) 52.8 4.6
Loch Skanda 51.5 12
Loch Redykajny 29.9 20.6
Loch Długie 26.8 17.2
Loch Sukiel 20.8 25
Loch Tyrsko (a.k.a. Jezioro Gutkowskie) 18.6 30.6
Loch Stary Dwór (a.k.a. Jezioro Starodworskie ) 6.0 23.3
Loch Siginek (a.k.a. Jezioro Kopytko, Jezioro Podkówka, Jezioro Styginek) 6.0 insufficient data
Loch Czarne approximately 1.3 insufficient data
Lake Żbik approximately 1.2 insufficient data
Loch Pereszkowo (a.k.a. Jezioro Pyszkowo) approximately 1.2 insufficient data
Loch Mummel (a.k.a. Jezioro Mumel) approximately 0.3 insufficient data
Loch Modrzewiowe 0.25 insufficient data

Demografics[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Upper Gate (Heich Gate) in the Auld Toun
Year Population
1772 1,770
1846 4,000
1875 6,000
1885 11,555
1890 19,373
1895 25,000
1939 50,000
1941 54,300
1946 23,000
1950 45,000
1972 over 100,000
1994 165,000
2000 170,000
2009 (30 Juin) 176,387

Administrative diveesion[eedit | eedit soorce]

Ceety hall

Olsztyn is dividit intae 23 destricts:

Destrict Population Aurie Densitie
Brzeziny 1,456 2.25 km² 647.1/km²
Dajtki 5,863 7.5 km² 781.7/km²
Generałów 6,500 nae data nae data
Grunwaldzkie 6,027 1.46 km² 4,128.1/km²
Gutkowo 2,256 7.2 km² 313.3/km²
Jaroty 29,046 4.82 km² 6,026.1/km²
Kętrzyńskiego 7,621 4.83 km² 1,577.8/km²
Kormoran 16,166 1.1 km² 14,696.4/km²
Kortowo 1,131 4.22 km² 268/km²
Kościuszki 6,704 1.18 km² 5,681.4/km²
Likusy 2,286 2.1 km² 1,088.6/km²
Mazurskie 4,615 5.98 km² 771.7/km²
Nad Jeziorem Długim 2,408 4.23 km² 569.3/km²
Nagórki 12,538 1.69 km² 7,418.9/km²
Pieczewo 10,918 2.24 km² 4,874.1/km²
Podgrodzie 11,080 1.35 km² 8,207.4/km²
Podleśna 10,414 9.93 km² 1,048.7/km²
Pojezierze 13,001 2.39 km² 5,439.7/km²
Redykajny 1,555 6.1 km² 254.9/km²
Śródmieście 3,448 0.58 km² 5,944.8/km²
Wojska Polskiego 6,759 5.03 km² 1,343.7/km²
Zatorze 6,988 0.45 km² 15,528.9/km²
Zielona Górka 1,015 6.44 km² 157.6/km²

There are mony smawer destricts: Jakubowo, Karolin, Kolonia Jaroty, Kortowo II, Łupstych, Niedźwiedź, Piękna Góra, Podlesie, Pozorty, Skarbówka Poszmanówka, Słoneczny Stok, Stare Kieźliny, Stare Miasto, Stare Zalbki, Stary Dwór, Track. These dae no hae cooncil representative assemblies.

Cultur[eedit | eedit soorce]

Theatres[eedit | eedit soorce]

Cinemas[eedit | eedit soorce]

Museums[eedit | eedit soorce]

Olsztyn's lairgest museum is the Museum o Warmie an Mazury. The ceety haes the Gazeta Olsztyńska House, Museum o Natur, an Museum o Sports.

Airchitectur[eedit | eedit soorce]

St. James's Cathedral

Music[eedit | eedit soorce]

Daith metal act Vader, regardit as ane o the first daith metal baunds frae Poland.

Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Michelin tyre company (umwhile Stomil Olsztyn) is the lairgest employer in the region o Warmie an Masurie.[2] Ither important industries are fuid processin an furnitur manufacturin.

Unemployment[eedit | eedit soorce]

Olsztyn- 4,000 (fowk) – 4.8% rate

Education[eedit | eedit soorce]

University of Warmia and Mazury

Sport[eedit | eedit soorce]

Politics[eedit | eedit soorce]

Members o the Sejm electit frae Olsztyn constituency in 2005

Members o Senate electit frae Olsztyn constituency in 2005

Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Planetarium o Olsztyn

Twin towns – Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Olsztyn is twinned wi:

'* Ukraine Lutsk, Ukraine

Olsztyn belangs tae the Federation o Copernicus Ceeties, an association o ceeties whare Copernicus livit an wirkit, such as Bologna, Frombork, Kraków, an Toruń. The main office o the federation is situatit at Olsztyn Planetarium an Astronomical Observatory, locatit on St. Andrew's Hill (143 m) in a umwhile watter touer erectit in 1897.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Historia Pomorza:(1815-1850),Gerard Labuda, Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk,page 157, 1993
  2. "100-milionowa opona w olsztyńskiej fabryce Michelin – Autoflesz.pl – Niezależny Portal Motoryzacyjny". Autoflesz.pl. Retrieved 16 September 2011. 
  3. "List of Twin Towns in the Ruhr District". 2009 Twins2010.com. Retrieved 28 October 2009. [deid airtin]
  4. "Bielsko-Biała – Partner Cities". 2008 Urzędu Miejskiego w Bielsku-Białej. Retrieved 10 December 2008. 

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Template:Principal ceeties o Poland

Coordinates: 53°47′N 20°29′E / 53.783°N 20.483°E / 53.783; 20.483