Matanzas

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Matanzas
(San Carlos y San Severino de Matanzas)
Municipality
The ceety an bay o Matanzas wi the Valle de Yumurí in the backgrund.
Nickname(s): La Atenas de Cuba
Venice o Cuba
Ceety o Brigs
Matanzas is located in Cuba
Matanzas
Matanzas
Location o Matanzas in Cuba
Coordinates: 23°03′4″N 81°34′31″W / 23.05111°N 81.57528°W / 23.05111; -81.57528
Kintra Banner o Cuba Cuba
Province Matanzas
Settled 1572
Foondit 1693[1]
Established 1695
Area[2]
 • Total 317 km2 (122 sq mi)
Elevation 20 m (70 ft)
Population (2004)[3]
 • Total 143,706
 • Density 453.3/km2 (1,174/sq mi)
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
Area code(s) +53-52

Matanzas is the caipital o the Cuban province o Matanzas. It is famit for its poets, cultur, an Afro-Cuban fowklore.

It is locatit on the northren shore o the island o Cuba, on the Bay o Matanzas (Spainyie Bahia de Matanzas), 90 kilometres (56 mi) east o the caipital Havana an 32 kilometres (20 mi) wast o the resort toun o Varadero.

Matanzas is cried the "Ceety o Brigs," o which thare are seiventeen crossin the three rivers that traverse the ceety (Rio Yumuri, San Juan, an Canimar). For this raison it wis referred tae as the "Venice o Cuba." It wis cried "La Atenas de Cuba" ("The Athens o Cuba") for its poets.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Matanzas wis foondit in 1693 as San Carlos y San Severino de Matanzas.[1] This follaeed a ryal decree ("real cédula") issued on 25 September 1690 which decreed that the bay an port o Matanzas be settled bi 30 faimilies frae the Canary Islands.[4]

Matanzas wis ane o the regions that saw intensive development o sugar plantations durin the colonial era. Consequently, mony African slaves wur importit tae support the sugar industry, pairticularly durin the first hauf o the nineteent century. For example, in 1792 thare wur 1900 slaves in Matanzas, roughly 30% o its population. In 1817, the slave population o Matanzas haed grown tae 10,773, comprisin nearly 50% o the oweraw population. Bi 1841, 53,331 slaves made up 62.7% o the population o Matanzas.[5] Census figurs for 1859 put the Matanzas slave population at 104,519.[5] Matanzas wis the steid o several slave insurrections an plots, includin the infamous Escalera conspiracy (discovered in late 1843). Due tae the heich number o baith slaves an, importantly, free Afro-Cubans in Matanzas, the retention o African traditions is especially strang there. In 1898, Matanzas became the location o the first action in the Spainyie-American War. The ceety wis bombardit bi American Navy vessels on 25 Aprile 1898, juist efter the beginnin o the war.

Name oreegin[eedit | eedit soorce]

The name Matanzas means "massacre" an refers tae a putative slaughter at the port o the same name in which 30 Spainyie sodgers wur crossin ane o the rivers tae attack an aboriginal camp on the far shore. The Spainyie sodgers didna hae ony boats, so they enleetit the help o some native fishermen. Housomeivver, ance they reached the middle o the river, the fishermen flipped the boats, an due tae the Spainyie sodgers' hivy metal armor, maist o them drouned.[6] Only twa weemen—ane said tae be the bonnie María de Estrada—survivit, the result o being "taken" by a Cacique. De Estrada is said tae hae later escapit the "pouer o the Cacique" an marriet Pedro Sánchez Farfán in the ceety o Trinidad. Frae 1900 tae the 1950s Portuguese descendants muivit tae Cuba acause o the haurd times an they plantit thairsels in Matanzas tae live build their faimilies. Acause o this chynge tae Cuba's atmosphere, the toun chyngit an fowk spoke Portuguese an Spainyie, some no aw, but that wis the wey o the toun an to this day it is still strang.

Geografie[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety is locatit on the north shore o the island o Cuba, on aw three sides o the Bay o Matanzas. The bay cuts deep in the island, an three rivers flow in the bay inside ceety limits (Rio Yumuri, San Juan, an Canimar). Tae the sooth-east, the landscape rises intae a hill cried Pan de Matanzas, dividit frae the Atlantic coast bi the Yumuri Valley an a coastal ridge.

The ceety o Matanzas is dividit intae three neebourheids: Versalles, Matanzas, an Pueblo Nuevo. The municipality is dividit intae the barrios o Bachicha, Bailén, Barracones, Bellamar, Camarioca, Cárcel, Ceiba Mocha, Colón, Corral Nuevo, Guanábana, Ojo de Agua, Refugio, San Luis, San Severino, Simpson y Monserrate, Versalles an Yumurí.[1]

Infrastructur[eedit | eedit soorce]

Transportation

Matanzas is servit bi Juan Gualberto Gómez Airport, 15 km east o the ceety.

The ceety haes twa railwey stations. The main station is on the main line frae Havana tae Santiago de Cuba. The electrifee'd Hershey train operates bi a different route tae Havana frae a separate station in the barrio o Versalles.

Matanzas is servit bi Viazul an Astro buses an aw.

The Via Blanca heich-gate connects the ceety wi baith Havana in the wast an Varadero in the east.

Education

The University o Matanzas is the province's seicontary education institution.

Further readin[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Miguel A. Bretos. Matanzas: The Cuba Nobody Knows (University Press of Florida; 2010) 317 pages; combines scholarly and personal perspectives in a history of Matanzas, a city that was known as the "Athens of Cuba" during a sugar boom of the 19th century.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Guije.com. "Matanzas". Retrieved 2007-10-07.  (Spainyie)
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named statoids
  3. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named atenas
  4. http://www.cubagenweb.org/Matanzas/index.htm
  5. 5.0 5.1 Bergad, Laird W. Cuban Rural Society in the Nineteenth Century: The Social and Economic History of Monoculture in Matanzas. Princeton University Press, 1990.
  6. Matanzas legend (pdf)

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]