Durin Timur's lifetime, Khalil Sultan gained the conqueror's particular favor. He distinguisht hissel durin the campaign in Indie an in 1402 wis given rule o Ferghana. Upon Timur's daith in 1405 Khalil viewed himself as his successor. Timur's appointit successor Pir Muhammad wis quickly cast aside, an Khalil gained control o Samarkand. Khalil gained Timur's treasury an bestoued the puppet title o Chagatai Khan (which afore haed always been grantit bi Timur tae a descendant o Genghis Khan tae legitimize his rule) tae a Timurid prince. Khalil an aa gained an ally, Sultan Husain, who haed previously an aa made claims tae the throne as a grandson o Timur.
Meanwhile, Shah Rukh, who wis ruling in Herat, an aa decidit tae press his claims. He advanced tae the Oxus River against Khalil but turned back when Khalil's faither Miran Shah, as well as his brither Aba Bakr, maricht frae Azerbaijan in support. Nivertheless, Khalil's position began tae weaken. He wis unpopular in Samarkand, whaur the nobility despised his wife Shad Mulk. The latter haed considerable influence ower Khalil, convincin him tae appoint fowk o law birth tae heich positions at the expense o the nobility. A famine caused him tae be even mair despised. He decidit tae return tae Ferghana wi his umwhile mentor, Khudaidid Husain, who went tae Moghulistan (the realm o the eastren Chagatai Khans) in an attempt tae win their support.
Khalil's rule in Samarkand finally endit when Shah Rukh entered the ceety unopposed on Mey 13, 1409. Transoxiana wis then given tae Shah Rukh's son Ulugh Beg. Khalil decidit tae surrender tae Shah Rukh, who haed captured Shad Mulk. He received his wife back, an wis appointit governor o Ray. He dee'd there in 1411. His wife committit suicide shortly efter his daith. He is an aa the ancestor o Babur, the foonder o the Mughal Empire.
- Roemer, p. 100
- Roemer, pp. 100-1
- Roemer, p. 101
- Roemer, H. R. "The Successors of Timur." The Cambridge History of Iran Volume 6: The Timurid and Safavid Periods. Edited by Peter Jackson. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1986. ISBN 0521200946