Keelung

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Location o Keelung in Taiwan

Keelung Ceety (an aa Jilong or Chilung) is a major port ceety situatit in the northeastren pairt o Taiwan. It borders New Taipei an forms the Taipei–Keelung metropolitan aurie, alang wi the Taipei an New Taipei. Nicknamed the Rainy Port for its frequent rain an maritime role, the ceety is Taiwan's second lairgest seaport (efter Kaohsiung). Keelung is currently admeenistered as a provincial municipality athin the Republic o Cheenae (Taiwan).

Name[eedit | eedit soorce]

Keelung City
Cheenese
Taiwanese Hokkien Name
Traditional Cheenese 雞籠市

The ceety o Keelung wis kent as Kelung or Keelung tae the Wastren warld durin the 19t century.[1][2] Housomeivver, the Taiwanese fowk hae lang cried the ceety Kelang (Cheenese: 雞籠; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Ke-lâng; literally "rooster cage or hencoop"[3]).

It haes been proposed that the name Keelung wis derived frae the local muntain that teuk the shape o a rooster cage. Housomeivver, it is mair probable that the name wis derived frae the first inhabitants o the region, as are the names o mony ither Taiwanese ceeties. In this case, the Ketagalan fowk wur the first inhabitants, an early Han settlers probably approximated "Ketagalan" wi "Ke-lâng" (phonetics o the Soothren Min leid).

In 1875, durin Qing Dynasty rule, the Cheenese characters o the name wur chyngit tae the mair auspicious 基隆 (pinyin: Jīlóng; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Ki-liông; literally "base prosperous").[4] In Mandarin, probably the wirkin leid o the Cheenese govrenment at the time, baith the auld an new names wur likely pronoonced Kīlóng (hence "Keelung"). Unner Japanese rule (1895–1945), the ceety wis kent tae the wast bi Japanese readins o the new name: Kirun, Kiirun or Kīrun. In Modren Staundart Cheenese, the offeecial leid o the Republic o Cheenae, the new name is read Jīlóng, although the locals have continued to call the city Ke-lâng throughout changes in government.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Keelung Port Croquis (in 1894)

Keelung wis first inhabitit bi the Ketagalan, a tribe o Taiwanese aborigine. Its first contact wi the wast wis wi the Spainyie in the early 17t century, who built a fort in Keelung as an ootpost o the Manila-based Spainyie East Indies. Frae 1642 tae 1661 an 1663–1668, Keelung wis unner Dutch control.[5][6] The Dutch East India Company teuk ower the Spainyie Fort San Salvador at Santissima Trinidad. They reduced its size an renamed it Fort Noort-Hollant.[6] The Dutch haed three mair minor fortifications in Keelung an an' a' a little schuil an a preacher. When Ming Dynasty lyalist Koxinga (Cheng Ch'en-Kung) successfully attacked the Dutch in the Sooth o Taiwan, the crew o the Keelung forts fled tae the Dutch tradin post in Japan. The Dutch came back in 1663 an re-occupee'd an strengthened their earlier forts. Housomeivver, trade wi Cheena through Keelung wis no wha they hoped it wad be an, in 1668, they left voluntarily.

In 1863, the Qing Empire opened up Keelung as a tradin port.

The Keelung Campaign wis an important subsidiary campaign in the Sino-French War (August 1884 tae April 1885). The French occupee'd Keelung frae 1 October 1884 tae 22 Juin 1885, an several battles wur fought durin this period atween Liu Ming-ch'uan's Airmy o Northren Formosa an Colonel Jacques Duchesne's Formosa Expeditionary Corps.

A systematic ceety development stairtit durin the Japanese Era, efter the 8 Mey 1895 Treaty o Shimonoseki, which haundit aw Taiwan ower tae Japan, went intae force. A five-phase construction o Keelung Harbor wis initiatit, an in bi 1916 trade volume haed exceedit even those o Danshui an Kaohsiung Harbors tae become ane o the major commercial harbors o Taiwan.[7]

Keelung became a toun in Keelung Destrict, Taipei Prefecture in 1920 an wis upgradit tae a ceety o Taipei Prefecture in 1924.[7] The Paceefic War brak oot in 1941, an Keelung became ane o the first targets o Allied bombers an wis nearly destroyed as a result.[7] Coal minin peaked in 1968. The ceety developed quickly an bi 1984, the harbor wis the 7t lairgest container harbor in the warld.[8]

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Keelung haes a fower-saison humid subtropical climate (Koppen Cfa) an is pairticularly notit for its heich rainfaw year-roond, wi an average o upwards o 3,700 millimetres (146 in), contributin tae its nickname o "Rain Port" (雨港). Winters are short an mild, whilst simmers are lang an hot, hintle like the rest o the island. Housomeivver its location on northren muntain slopes means that due tae orographic lift, rainfaw is hivier durin hairst an winter, the latter durin which a northeasterly flow prevails. Durin simmer, soothwasterly winds dominate an thus rainfaw there is a slicht rain shadae effect. Fog is maist serious durin winter an ware, when relative humidity levels are an aa heichest.

Climate data for Keelung (1971-2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average heich °C (°F) 18.0
(64.4)
18.2
(64.8)
20.3
(68.5)
24.1
(75.4)
27.1
(80.8)
30.4
(86.7)
32.6
(90.7)
31.9
(89.4)
29.5
(85.1)
26.1
(79.0)
22.7
(72.9)
19.7
(67.5)
25.1
(77.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 15.8
(60.4)
15.8
(60.4)
17.6
(63.7)
21.1
(70.0)
24.2
(75.6)
27.1
(80.8)
29.0
(84.2)
28.6
(83.5)
26.8
(80.2)
24.0
(75.2)
20.8
(69.4)
17.6
(63.7)
22.4
(72.3)
Average laich °C (°F) 13.7
(56.7)
13.7
(56.7)
15.3
(59.5)
18.7
(65.7)
21.7
(71.1)
24.5
(76.1)
26.0
(78.8)
25.9
(78.6)
24.4
(75.9)
22.1
(71.8)
18.9
(66.0)
15.6
(60.1)
20.0
(68.0)
Rainfall mm (inches) 335.8
(13.22)
399.1
(15.713)
332.3
(13.083)
240.9
(9.484)
296.1
(11.657)
286.7
(11.287)
150.4
(5.921)
212.8
(8.378)
360.8
(14.205)
413.4
(16.276)
394.7
(15.539)
332.1
(13.075)
3,755.1
(147.839)
humidity 81.2 82.5 83.6 81.6 81.7 79.6 75.1 76.7 78.6 79.2 79.0 78.5 79.8
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 21.0 19.6 21.1 17.2 18.8 14.2 9.2 11.5 15.0 17.7 19.9 20.1 205.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 54.5 48.0 65.6 83.4 90.3 125.4 203.0 192.5 149.1 94.3 58.7 52.6 1,217.4
Source: [9]

Cultur[eedit | eedit soorce]

A view o Dountoun Keelung
A view o the Port o Keelung

Ane o the maist popular festivals in Taiwan is the Mid-Summer Ghost Festival. The Keelung Ghost Festival is amang the auldest in Taiwan, datin back tae 1851 efter bitter clashes atween rivalin clans, which claimed mony lives afore mediators stepped in. The Ghost Festival of Keelung City is a reflection of Taiwan's rich cultural history that is vera hintle alive the day.[10]

Admeenistration[eedit | eedit soorce]

Keelung haes 7 destricts (區 Qu): Destrict Population Land aurie
Districts of Keelung-Taiwan.png as o 2009 km²
Zhongzheng-qu 中正區 56,635 10.2118
Zhongshan-qu 中山區 51,755 10.5238
Ren'ai-qu 仁愛區 50,475 4.2335
Xinyi-qu 信義區 51,436 10.6706
Anle-qu 安樂區 85,093 18.0250
Nuannuan-qu 暖暖區 38,184 22.8283
Qidu-qu 七堵區 55,18 56.2659

Population growth[eedit | eedit soorce]

Year Population Notes
1840
700 Hoosehaulds
1897
9,500
1924
58,000
1943
100,000
1944
92,000
Decrease due tae Allied air bombins
1948
130,000
28,000 Mainlander influx
1971
330,000
late 1990s
347,828
2010
387,207

Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Twin touns — Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Keelung is twinned wi:

See an aa[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Smith, D. Warres (1900). European settlements in the Far East: China, Japan, Corea, Indo-China, Straits Settlements, Malay States, Siam, Netherlands, India, Borneo, the Philippines, etc.. S. Low, Marston & company. p. 38. Retrieved 2010-07-24. 
  2. Terry, Thomas Philip (1914). Terry's Japanese Empire. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 775. Retrieved 2010-07-24. 
  3. "Welcome to Keelung City: The Beginning". Keelung City Government. Retrieved 2010-07-24. 
  4. "Ching Dynasty". Keelung City Government. Retrieved 2010-07-24. 
  5. Twitchett, Denis Crispin (1978). The Cambridge history of China, Volume 2; Volume 8. Cambridge University Press. p. 46. ISBN 0521243335. Retrieved 2010-06-12. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Ming Dynasty and Cheng Cheng kung's Era". Keelung City Government. Retrieved 2010-06-12. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 "Japanese Occupation". Keelung City Government. Retrieved 2010-06-12. 
  8. "The Republic of China". Keelung City Government. Retrieved 2010-06-12. 
  9. "Statistics > Monthly Mean". Central Weather Bureau. 
  10. "Keelung: Mid-summer ghost festival". Dream Life. Retrieved 2008-10-15. 

Sources an freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Template:Taiwan metropolitan auries Template:Admeenistrative diveesions o the Republic o Cheenae