Juistice Commandos o the Armenie Genocide

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Juistice Commandos o the Armenie Genocide (JCAG) (Armenie: Հայկական Ցեղասպանութեան Արդարութեան Մարտիկներ, ՀՑԱՄ‎) wis a militant Armenie organisation that operatit in various kintras frae 1975 tae 1987. It socht the recognition o the Armenie Genocide bi the Republic o Turkey an the establishment o an unthirlt Armenie (includin the eastren pairt o Turkey), tae which end it conductit a campaign o terrorist attacks that targetit representatives o the Turkis Republic (mainly Turkis diplomats) aroond the warld.[1][2]

Affiliation wi Armenie Revolutionar Federation[eedit | eedit soorce]

The JCAG wis the militar branch o Armenie Revolutionar Federation.[3] The fact wis established as early as Mey 1976, when a member o JCAG wis killed bi his proper bomb in the heidquarter o ARF in Paris.[4] It wis confirmit when French poleetical scientist Gaïdz Minassian wis alloued tae consult the archives o ARF for his doctoral thesis.[5] In several occasions, the offeecial newspapers o ARF, in USA, Fraunce an Lebanon juistifee'd the "airmit struggle"[6] an publisht offeecial communiqués o JCAG.[7]

The legal branches o ARF fundraised tae pay the lawyer costs o arrestit JCAG members. The maist famous case is Harry Sassounian, sentencit tae life for the assassination o Turkis general consul in Los Angeles.[8] Accordin tae Dashnak newspaper Asbarez (15 October 1983), several dozens o thoosans o Armenies (ARF sympathisers an militants) pairticipatit tae the Sassounian solidarity groups. French ARF organisit a demonstration in front o US consulate in Lyon, in protestation against Sassounian's arrest.[9] ARF supportit Harutyun Krikor Levonian an Alexander Elbekyan an aw, sentencit tae twinty years in preeson for the assassination o Galip Balkar, Turkis ambassador in Belgrade, baith bi money an statements o support;[10] an Max Hraïr Kilndjian, sentencit tae twa years o jail as an accessory in the attempt o murther against Turkis ambassador in Swisserland.[11]

In 1982, an attempt tae bomb the biggin o Turkis consulate in Philadelphia wis stoppit juist in richt time bi the FBI; the leader o the group, Vicken Hovsepian, is sentencit tae 6 years o jail, a sentence confirmit in appeal.[12] Hovsepian is nou the main leader o ARF in USA. In Januar 2001, anither leader o American ARF, Mourad Topalian, wis sentencit tae 37 months o jail for illegal storin o war weapons an explosives, in the benefice o JCAG.[13]

JCAG's activities wur concentratit in European an North American kintras targetin Turkis interests.[14]

Ither names[eedit | eedit soorce]

In 1983, the JCAG teuk the name of "Armenie Revolutionar Airmy (ARA)"[15] Like afore, ARF-affiliatit press published ARA communiqués [16] as well as airticles supportin its aims.[17]

The ARF organises ivery year ceremonies in honour o the five ARA members who attacked the Turkis embassy in Portugal,[18] especially in Glendale, Los Angeles, in New Jersey, Beirut, Paris an Décines-Charpieu.[19]

Efter the three ARA perpetrators o attack against Turkis embassy in Ottawa wur sentencit tae life wi nae possibility o parole for 25 years, ARF slammit the verdict.[20]

Unner the name o "Greek-Bulgarie-Armenie Front", the JCAG perpetratit the bombin o Melbourne's Turkis consulate[21] (the Dashnak Levon Demirian was sentenced for this crime and served 10 years in prison[22]) an the bombin o Brisbane's mail sortin facility, on 19 Januar 1987.


Attacks[eedit | eedit soorce]

This is a leet o attacks bi the Juistice Commandos o the Armenie Genocide.

  • 24 October 1975, Paris: Turkis Ambassador tae Fraunce, İsmail Erez, wis assassinatit in Paris, Fraunce. His caur's driver Talip Yener wis killed in the attack an aw.[24]
  • 28 Mey 1976, Zurich, Swisserland: Twa bombs caused extensive damage tae the office o Garanti Bank an o Labor Attaché o Turkis embassy.[25]
  • 29 Mey 1977, Istanbul, Turkey: a double bombin in railroad station an airport killed five bodies an woondit 64.[26]
  • 2 Juin 1978, Madrid: Turkis Ambassador tae Spain Zeki Kuneralp's caur wis attacked in Madrid, Spain. His wife Necla, retired Turkis Ambassador Beşir Balcıoğlu, an their driver, Antonio Torres, wur killed. Kuneralp was not in the car.[28] Christopher Walker wrote that "as with all terrorism, often murdered shockingly inappropriate people, such as the wife of Zeki Kuneralp, whose family had been instrumental in seeking rapprochement between the different nationalities of post-Ottoman Turkey".[29]
  • January 20, 1980, Madrid, Spain: several bomb exploded in Madrid airport, injuring twelve peoples.[32]
  • 17 Aprile 1980, Roma, Italy: JCAG gunmen opened fire on the Turkis Ambassador tae the Holy See, Vecdi Turel, seriously woondin him, an slichtly injurin his bodyguard, Tahsin Guvenc.[35]
  • 6 October 1980, USA: Harut Sassounian attemptit tae kill the Turkis general consul, Kemal Arikan. Sassounian wis sentencit tae 6 years o jail; his brither Hampig "Harry" Sassounian assassinatit Kemal Arikan in 1982.[36]
  • 12 October 1980, New York, USA: A bomb plantit unner a stolen automobile pairkit in front o the Turkish Center in Unitit Naitions Plaza explodit at 4:50 p.m., minutes afore hunders o employees an tourists exit the Unitit Naitions biggin which closes at 5 p.m. The bomb, which haes the force o nine sticks o dynamite, demolished the automobile, hurlin the pairts o the vehicle in aw directions; aw that remained o the vehicle is the rear bumper. The flyin pieces o metal an glass as well as flames frae the blast injured five Americans. The explosion destroyed a vehicle pairkit athort the street, an causes significant damage tae the 11-story Turkis Center, an blows oot the windaes o nearbi biggins, includin B'nai B'rith, Chase Manhattan Bank, the African American Center, a travel agency an numerous apairtment complexes. Assistant New York Ceety Polis Chief, Milton Schwartz, expressed “It is absolutely lucky that more people weren’t injured.” U.S. Ambassador tae the Unitit Naitions, Donald McHenry, condemned the attacks as “savage an calculatit terrorism.” New York Ceety Mayor Edward Koch expressed that the incident “demonstrates forcefully that all terrorism, no matter what form it takes, and no matter against whom it is directed, must be condemned and punished.”[37]
  • 12 October 1980, Los Angeles: the offices o Imperial Travel, a travel agency awned bi a Turkis American, Ali Ondemir, wur pairtially destroyed bi a bomb; a tourist wis woondit.[38]
  • 27 Dizember 1980, Sydney, Australie. Twa gunmen on a motorcycle shot an killed the Turkis consul-general an his bodyguard. The consul, Sarik Ariyak, haed receivit a daith threat that day, an teuk it seriously enough tae swap caurs wi his bodyguard. The motorcyclists opened fire on the bodyguard, then realizin they haed not hit their intended target, caught up wi Mr. Ariyak's fleein caur an fired several shots throu the windshield, killin him instantly. No ane wis apprehendit. In their phone caw tae the newspaper, the assassins said they wad continue tae attack Turkis diplomats an Turkis institutions.[39]
  • 3 Juin 1981, Orange, USA: a bomb explodit in the Orange County Convention Center in Anaheim, the scheduled steid o a Turkis fowk dance an muisic show, causin extensive damage. Twa days afore, bomb threats provokit cancellation o anither Turkis show, in San Francisco.[40]
  • 20 November 1981, Los Angeles: a bomb caused extensive damage whaur the Turkis consulate o LA is locatit, 8730 Wilshire Blvd, Beverly Hills.[41] Serge Samionian, Secretar o the Los Angeles Chapter o the Armenian National Committee of America, submittit a letter to Los Angeles World Affairs Council (LAWAC), statin “2000 Armenies are expectit tae turn oot for the demonstration against the Ambassador” o Turkey an requestin that the Ambassador's speech be canceled “in the interest o public safety.”.[42] In vain.
  • 28 Januar 1982, USA: Turkis consul general Kemal Arıkan wis killed in his caur as he sat at a stoplicht in Los Angeles. Fower fowk wur taken intae custody; Harry Sassounian, 19 at the time o the killin, wis later convictit o first degree murther. The jury foond that Sassounian killed Arikan "acause o his naitionality", leadin tae a sentencin o life in preeson athoot possibility o parole.[43] In 2002, the sentence was changed in life with no possibility of parole during 25 years, but Sassounian's demand of parole were rejected in 2006 and 2010[44] An accomplice, believit tae be Krikor (Koko) Saliba, is still at lairge.[45]
  • 4 Mey 1982: New England's honorary Turkis consul general in Somerville, Massachusetts, Orhan Gündüz, whose import shop in Cambridge wis the target o a previous attack, wis shot bi a man dressed in a jogger's ootfit, as he sat in his caur.[46]
  • 27 Juin 1982: Turkis admeenistrative attaché, Erkut Akbay in Lisbon, Portugal, wis assassinatit ootside his hame on the ootskirts o the ceety as he returned hame for lunch.[47] His wife, Nadide Akbay, wis shot in the heid as she sat beside him. Nadide Akbay dee'd efter aicht months in coma on 11 Januar 1983.[48]
  • 9 September 1982, Bulgaria: Bora Süelkan, attaché tae the Turkis consulate o Burgas wis assassinatit.[50]
  • 9 Mairch 1983, Yugoslavie. "Turkis Ambassador Galip Balkar dee'd o woonds receivit whan twa gunmen shot him in an ambush in central Belgrade. An airmit clash atween the guerrillas an polis ensued an ane o the guerillas wis woondit. Baith guerrillas, who claim tae belang tae an Armenie paramilitar organisation, wur eventually apprehendit. A Yugoslav passerbi wis killed durin the clash, while a female student an a Yugoslav officer who wis tryin tae captur the assailants wur woondit. The Justice Commandos of the Armenian Genocide claimed credit for the attack.[51]
  • 27 Julie 1983, Portugal: durin the suicide attack against Turkis embassy in Lisbon, the five perpetrators, a Portuguese polisman (Manuel Pacheco) an the wife o Turkis chargé d'affaires, Cahide Micioglu, wur killed; anither Portuguese polisman wis seriously woondit.[53]
  • 20 Juin 1984, Austrick: the trade an labor attaché tae Turkis embassy, Erdogan Ozen, wis assassinatit in the explosion o his caur[54]
  • 3 September 1984, Turkey: twa ARA members are killed in front o Topkapi Palace bi their awn bomb, due tae an error o manipulation.[55]
  • 19 November 1984, Austrick: Enver Ergün, UN offeecial, is assassinatit in Vienna.[56]
  • 12 Mairch 1985, Canadae: three ARA members attacked the Turkis embassy in Ottawa, killin the Pinkerton agent Claude Brunelle, who attemptit tae stop them, takkin 12 hostages an attemptin in vain tae kill the Turkis ambassador. They wur later sentencit tae life, includin 25 years athoot pardon.[57]
  • 19 Januar 1987, Australie: a bomb explodit in a package at a mail sortin facility o Brisbane an injured sax fowk.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Starving Armenians: America and the Armenian Genocide, 1915-1930 and After - Page 166 by Merrill D. Peterson
  2. Barry Rubin, Barry M. Rubin, Judith Colp Rubin, "Chronologies of modern terrorism, M.E. Sharpe, 2008, p. 68
  3. Francis P. Hyland, Armenian Terrorism: the Past, the Present, the Prospects, Boulder-San Francisco-Oxford: Westview Press, 1991, pp. 61-62; Yves Ternon, La Cause arménienne, Paris: Le Seuil, 1983, p. 218; The Armenian Reporter, January 19, 1984, p. 1.
  4. Yves Ternon, p. 221
  5. Gaïdz Minassian, Guerre et terrorisme arméniens, Paris, Presses universitaires de France, 2002, pp. 32-34 and 106-109.
  6. Asbarez, April 24, May 1st and 22, 1973; Haïastan, July 1981 and special issue on Sassounian affair, February 1984; The Armenian Weekly, August 21, September 17, December 10 and 24, 1983, January 14 and 28, 1984 and December 31, 1986.
  7. Haïastan, February and April–May, 1983
  8. Michael M. Gunter, "Pursuing the Just Cause of their People". A Study of Contemporary Armenian Terrorism, Westport-New York-London, Greenwood Press, 1986, pp. 70 and 74; "More Than $70 000 Raised for Hampig Sassounian Defense Effort", Asbarez, 25 février 2002.
  9. « Soutien à Sassounian (Lyon) », Haïastan (Paris), juin 1982, p. 6.
  10. Haïastan, June 1983, p. 6 (editorial); The Armenian Weekly, October 1st, 1983, p. 1; "ANC east branches send protest telegrams to Belgrad", The Armenian Weekly, January 14, 1984, p. 1.
  11. Yves Ternon, pp. 223-224.
  12. "Court Finds Four Armenian Youth Guifly of '82 Attempt on Consulate", The Armenian Reporter, October 18, 1984; Verdict of appeal court
  13. Armenian Terrorists at Work in USA, NBC, 2005 ; http://www.usnews.com/usnews/news/articles/010205/archive_005996.htm
  14. Geopolitical and -Economic Changes in the Balkan Countries - Page 75 by Nicholas V. Gianaris
  15. Michael M. Gunter, pp. 56-61; Francis P. Hyland, p. 62; Gaïdz Minassian, p. 92; Global Terrorism Database.
  16. The Armenian Weekly, July 14, October 12 and November 19, 1984.
  17. Aram Khaligian, “The Necessities of Violence and National Culture in the Liberation Struggle,” The Armenian Weekly, 31 December 1986, p. 15; Haïastan, April and December 1985, December 1986.
  18. Gaïdz Minassian, op. cit., p. 93.
  19. The Armenian Weekly, February 6, 1984, pp. 6-7 ; "Lisbon 5 Commemoration and Ceremony for the Repose of Souls Held in Lebanon", Asbarez, July 27, 2004 ; "Sacrifice of Lisbon 5 Remembered at Glendale’s Saint Mary Church", Asbarez, July 27, 2008 ; "Community Remembers Sacrifice of Lisbon 5", Asbarez, August 1st, 2008 ; http://www.fra-france.com/index.php?page=article&id=55 ; http://www.fra-france.com/index.php?page=article&id=36 ; http://www.france-armenie.fr/agenda/agenda07b-2008.pdf
  20. Haïastan, December 1986.
  21. Global Terrorism Database
  22. Police Life Magazine, December 2006.
  23. Global Terrorism Database; Gaïdz Minassian, Guerre et terrorisme arméniens, Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 2002, p. 44; Michael M. Gunter, "Pursuing the Just Cause of their People. A Study of Contemporary Armenian Terrorism, Westport-New York-London, Greenwood Press, 1986, p. 68.
  24. Global Terrorism Database; Gaïdz Minassian, ibid.; Michael M. Gunter, ibid.
  25. Armenian Terrorism: the Past, the Present, the Prospects, Boulder-San Francisco-Oxford: Westview Press, 1991, p. 111; Assembly of Turkish American Associations, Report on Armenian Terrorism and JCAG terrorist Hampig Sassounian, 2010, pp. 36-37.
  26. Yves Ternon, La Cause arménienne, Paris: Le Seuil, 1983, p. 221 ; Armand Gaspard, Le Combat arménien, Lausanne: L’Âge d’homme, 1984, p. 75.
  27. Global Terrorism Database; Michael M. Gunter, ibid.
  28. Global Terrorism Database; Michael M. Gunter, ibid.
  29. Armenia. The Survival of a Nation, London-New York: Routledge, 1990, p. 380
  30. Global Terrorism Database; Michael M. Gunter, ibid.
  31. Global Terrorism Database; Michael M. Gunter, ibid.
  32. Francis P. Hyland, p. 153.
  33. Global Terrorism Database
  34. Comité de soutien à Max Kilndjian, Les Arméniens en cour d'assises. Terroristes ou résistants ?, Marseille: Parenthèse, 1982
  35. Global Terrorism Database
  36. Global Terrorism Database; Michael M. Gunter, p. 82
  37. Global Terrorism Database Assembly of Turkish American Associations, [Report on Armenian Terrorism and JCAG terrorist Hampig Sassounian http://www.ataa.org/reference/Supporting_Documents_Hampig_Sassounian.pdf], 2010, pp. 31-32.
  38. Global Terrorism Database Assembly of Turkish American Associations, [Report on Armenian Terrorism and JCAG terrorist Hampig Sassounian http://www.ataa.org/reference/Supporting_Documents_Hampig_Sassounian.pdf], 2010, p. 31.
  39. Global Terrorism Database; Michael M. Gunter, p. 69.
  40. Francis P. Hyland, pp. 164-165; Assembly of Turkish American Associations, [Report on Armenian Terrorism and JCAG terrorist Hampig Sassounian http://www.ataa.org/reference/Supporting_Documents_Hampig_Sassounian.pdf], pp. 36-37; Michael M. Gunter, p. 3.
  41. Global Terrorism Database
  42. Assembly of Turkish American Associations, [Report on Armenian Terrorism and JCAG terrorist Hampig Sassounian http://www.ataa.org/reference/Supporting_Documents_Hampig_Sassounian.pdf], p. 44.
  43. [1]; Michael M. Gunter, p. 69
  44. ATAA Assures California Prison Parole Board Denies Parole to Armenian Terrorist Sassounian, August 6, 2010.
  45. Francis P. Hyland, pp. 61-62 pp. 68 and 154; Michael M. Gunter, p. 82.
  46. Global Terrorism Database; Michael M. Gunter, ibid.; Francis P. Hyland, p. 193.
  47. Turkish Envoy in Lisbon Is Killed by Gunman
  48. Turk Wounded in June Attack By Armenian Terrorists Dies
  49. Global Terrorism Database; Gaïdz Minassian, p. 77; Michael M. Gunter, ibid.
  50. Global Terrorism Database; Michael M. Gunter, ibid.; Gaïdz Minassian, p. 83.
  51. Global Terrorism Database; Michael M. Gunter, pp. 69-70 and 133.
  52. Global Terrorism Database; Michael M. Gunter, p. 69; Gaïdz Minassian, p. 92.
  53. Michael M. Gunter, pp. 58-59, 70 and 79; Gaïdz Minassian, pp. 90-93.
  54. Global Terrorism Database; Michael M. Gunter, pp. 62-63 and 69; Gaïdz Minassian, p. 92.
  55. Global Terrorism Database; Michael M. Gunter, pp. 62-63
  56. Global Terrorism Database; Michael M. Gunter, p. 69.
  57. Francis P. Hyland, pp. 69-70 and 221.
  58. Global Terrorism DatabasePolice Life Magazine, December 2006.

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