Jiuquan

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Jiuquan
Prefectur-level ceety
酒泉市
Location of Jiuquan Prefectur (shadit in yellae) athin Gansu
Jiuquan is located in China
Jiuquan
Jiuquan
Location of Jiuquan Prefectur (shadit in yellae) athin Gansu
Coordinates: 39°46′N 98°34′E / 39.767°N 98.567°E / 39.767; 98.567
Kintra Cheenae
Province Gansu
Area
 • Total 191,342 km2 (73,878 sq mi)
Population (2002)
 • Total 962,000
 • Density 5.0/km2 (13/sq mi)
Time zone China standard time (UTC+8)
Website http://www.jiuquan.gov.cn/

Jiuquan (Cheenese: 酒泉; pinyin: Jiǔquán) is a "prefectur-level ceety" in the wastmaist pairt o the Gansu province in Cheenae. It is ane o the lairgest ceeties in the warld bi aurie.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

The entire "prefectur-level ceety" (that is, a multi-coonty admeenistrative unit - an equivalent tae the traditional Cheenese prefectur) stretches for mair than 500 km frae east tae wast, occupyin 191,342 km²; its population as o 2002 wis 962,000.

The ceety's name came frae legendary tale o the young Han general Huo Qubing, who poured a jar of precious wine intae a local creek in order tae share the taste wi his troops, in celebration o their crushin victory against Xiongnu forces. The creek wis later named Jiu Quan ("Wine Spring"), which became the name o the Han prefecture established there. It wis an active military garrison durin the Later Han Dynasty.[1]

It is kent in popular legend as the place where rhubarb wis first grown an is an aa the ceety whaur the Portuguese Jesuit missionary an splorer Bento de Góis (1562–1607) wis robbed an dee'd destitute.[2]

Admeenistrative diveesions[eedit | eedit soorce]

Map
Jiuquan mcp.png
# Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population
(2004 est.)
Aurie (km²) Density
(/km²)
1 Suzhou Destrict 肃州区 Sùzhōu Qū 350,000 3,349 105
2 Yumen Ceety 玉门市 Yùmén Shì 170,000 13,500 13
3 Dunhuang Ceety 敦煌市 Dūnhuáng Shì 140,000 26,960 5
4 Jinta Coonty 金塔县 Jīntǎ Xiàn 140,000 14,663 9
5 Guazhou Coonty 瓜州县 Guāzhōu Xiàn 90,000 21,350 4
6 Subei Mongol Autonomous Coonty 肃北蒙古族
自治县
Sùběi Měnggǔzú
Zìzhìxiàn
10,000 55,000 <1
7 Aksai Kazakh Autonomous Coonty 阿克塞哈萨克族
自治县
Ākèsài Hāsàkèzú
Zìzhìxiàn
10,000 31,374 <1

Geography[eedit | eedit soorce]

Jiuquan haes a cauld desert climate (Koppen BWk), wi lang, cauld winters, an hot, somewha dry simmers. Monthly average temperatures range frae −9 °C (15.8 °F) in Januar tae 21.7 °C (71.1 °F) in Julie, wi an annual mean of 7.5 °C (45.5 °F). The range atween daytime an nichttime temperatures is heich throughoot hintle o the year. Wi sunny weather an law humidity dominatin year-roond, the aurie hosts ane o the launch steids for the PRC's space programme.

Climate data for Jiuquan (1971−2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average heich °C (°F) −1.6
(29.1)
2.3
(36.1)
9.1
(48.4)
17.4
(63.3)
23.2
(73.8)
26.8
(80.2)
28.6
(83.5)
27.8
(82.0)
22.7
(72.9)
15.3
(59.5)
6.5
(43.7)
−0.1
(31.8)
14.8
(58.6)
Average laich °C (°F) −14.9
(5.2)
−11.3
(11.7)
−4.4
(24.1)
2.8
(37.0)
8.4
(47.1)
12.7
(54.9)
14.7
(58.5)
13.4
(56.1)
8.2
(46.8)
1.2
(34.2)
−6.1
(21.0)
−12.6
(9.3)
1.0
(33.8)
Precipitation mm (inches) 1.2
(0.047)
1.4
(0.055)
4.8
(0.189)
3.7
(0.146)
7.9
(0.311)
14.8
(0.583)
20.5
(0.807)
19.7
(0.776)
8.8
(0.346)
2.3
(0.091)
1.6
(0.063)
1.1
(0.043)
87.8
(3.457)
humidity 53 45 40 35 37 47 53 52 51 47 49 56 47.1
Avg. precipitation days 2.0 2.0 2.6 2.1 3.0 5.8 7.9 6.5 3.2 1.3 1.5 1.9 39.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 219.0 211.5 240.6 259.0 293.3 283.0 279.1 276.9 267.5 265.1 227.1 208.6 3,030.7
Source: China Meteorological Administration

Suzhou toun[eedit | eedit soorce]

The admeenistrative center o the "prefectur-level ceety" o Jiuquan is the "Destrict" o Suzhou (肃州区, Suzhou Qu), which occupees 3,386 square km in the eastren pairt o Jiuquan "prefecture-level ceety", an haed a population o 340,000 as o 2002. It is whaur modren mapmakers wad uisually place the "Jiuquan" label.

There is (or was) a lairge billbuird at the entrance tae the ceety that read: "Without Haste, Without Fear, We Conquer the World".[2]

The Destrict o Suzhou corresponds tae the historic toun o Suzhou (no tae be ramfeeselt wi Suzhou in Jiangsu province). It wis foondit in 111 BC as a military ootpost on the Silk Road tae Central Asie (the Hexi Corridor). It is approximately 1500 m abuin sea level.

Being an important key point in the Hexi Corridor, Suzhou aften foond itsel tae be a defendit fortress, taken wi a hivy loss o life, as wis the case when Meng Qiaofang teuk it frae Ding Guodong in 1649, or when the Qing general Zuo Zongtang teuk it in 1873 frae its Hui defenders commandit bi Ma Wenlu durin the Muslim Rebellion.

Transport[eedit | eedit soorce]

Jiuquan is served bi Cheenae Naitional Heich-gate 312 an the Lanzhou-Xinjiang Railway.

It is an aa served bi Jiuquan Airport

Space launch center[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main airticle: Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center

Jiuquan ceety (i.e. Suzhou) is the closest major ceety tae the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center. Still, the space launch center is mair than 100 km away frae the ceety, an is actually locatit no in Gansu province, but in the neighborin Inner Mongolie Autonomous Region. It wis built in 1958; the first Cheenese human spaceflicht, Shenzhou 5 wis launched there on 15 October 2003, makin Yang Liwei Cheenae's first cosmonaut an a naitional hero.[2] The second was in 2005.

See an aa[eedit | eedit soorce]


Footnotes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Hill, John E. (Sept., 2003). Draft annotated translation of the Xiyu juan of the Hou Hanshu, or The Western Regions according to the Hou Hanshu. [1]
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Winchester, Simon. (2008), The Man Who Loved China, p. 264. HarperCollins, New York. ISBN 978-0-06-088459-8.

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]