Jaffa

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Jaffa skyline

Jaffa (Inglis pronunciation: /ˈæfə/, /ˈɑːfə/[1]; Ebreu: יָפוֹ‎‎, Aboot this soond Yāfō ; Arabic: يَافَاAboot this soond Yāfā ; Laitin: Joppe; an aa Japho, Joppa as transliteration frae the Greek "Ιόππη") is an auncient port ceety believed tae be ane o the auldest in the warld.[2] Jaffa haes been incorporatit wi Tel Aviv creatin the ceety o Tel Aviv-Yafo, Israel.

Etymology[eedit | eedit soorce]

The name o the ceety is supposedly mentioned in Egyptian sources an the Amarna Letters as Yapu. There are several legends aboot the oreegin o the name Jaffa. Some say it is named for Japheth, ane o the sons o Noah, who built it efter the Great Flood. The Hellenist tradition links the name to "Iopeia", which is Cassiopeia, the mither o Andromeda. An ootcroppin o rocks near the harbor is reputit tae hae been the place frae which Andromeda wis rescued bi Perseus. Pliny the Elder associates the name wi Jopa, the dochter o Aeolus, god o wind. The Arab geographer Al-Muqaddasi mentions it unner the name Yaffa, which is uised bi Arabic speakers the day.

Demography[eedit | eedit soorce]

Jaffa port

Modren Jaffa haes a heterogeneous population o Jews, Christians, an Muslims. Jaffa currently haes 46,000 residents, o whom 17,000 are Arab citizens o Israel. The majority o the Arab population lives in the renewed soothwastren neighborhuid o Ajami.

Socioeconomic an poleetical problems[eedit | eedit soorce]

Jaffa suffers frae drug problems, high creeme rates an violence. Some Arab residents hae alleged that the Israeli authorities are attemptin tae Judaize Jaffa bi evictin Arab residents frae hooses awned bi the Amidar govrenment-operatit public hoosin company. Amidar representatives say the residents are illegal squatters.[3] The 2010 film Port of Memory explores these themes, follaein the lives o Palestinians inhabitin the aurie, stavin aff expulsion.[4] The Tel Aviv municipality haed been accused o tryin tae erase the ceety's Arab past. In the early 1950s, mony Arabic street names wur replaced bi Ebreu names.

Mosques[eedit | eedit soorce]

Al-Bahr owerleukin Jaffa seashore

Al-Bahr Mosque, owerleukin the harbor, is depictit in a paintin frae 1675 bi the Dutch painter Lebrun. It mey be Jaffa's auldest existin mosque, although the oreeginal date o construction is unkent an chynges tae the structur hae been made syne then, such as the addition o a seicont floor an reconstruction o the upper pairt o the minaret. It wis uised bi fishermen an sailors frequentin the port, an residents o the surroondin aurie. Accordin tae local legend, the wives o sailors livin in Jaffa prayed there for the safe return o their husbands. The mosque wis renovatit in 1997.[5]

Mahmoudia Mosque wis built in 1812 bi Abu Nabbut, govrenor o Jaffa frae 1810-1820.[6] Ootside the mosque is a water funtain (sabil) for pilgrims.[7] Nouzha Mosque on Jerusalem Boulevard is Jaffa's main mosque the day.

Urban development[eedit | eedit soorce]

From the 1990s onwards, efforts have been made to restore Arab and Islamic landmarks, such as the Mosque of the Sea and Hassan Bek Mosque, and document the history of Jaffa's Arab population. Parts of the Old City have been renovated, turning Jaffa into a tourist attraction featuring old restored buildings, art galleries, theaters, souvenir shops, restaurants, sidewalk cafes and promenades. Beyond the Old City and tourist sites, many neighborhoods of Jaffa are poor and underdeveloped. However, real-estate prices have risen sharply due to gentrification projects in al-Ajami and Lev Yafo.[8] The municipality of Tel Aviv-Jaffa is currently working to beautify and modernize the port area, and are expanding the boardwalk along the sea from Bat Yam to Tel Aviv. They are also constructing a light rail that will travel from Bat Yam to Petach Tikvah and throughout the Gush Dan territory.

Landmarks[eedit | eedit soorce]

Jaffa clock touer

The Clock Square wi its distinctive clocktouer wis built in 1906 in honor o Sultan Abdul Hamid II. The Saraya (govrenor's palace) wis built in the 1890s.[9] St. Peter's Kirk is a Franciscan kirk an hospice built in the 19t century on the remains o a Crusaders fortress; Napoleon is believed tae hae stayed there. St. Michael's Kirk, restored in 1994, serves Romanian Christians. St. Tabitha chapel serves the Roushie Christian community, wi services in Roushie an Ebreu. St. Peter's Kirk wis built in 1895 on the steid o St. Peter's resurrection o Tabitha. Inside the monastery is the steid o the hoose whaur St. Tabitha lived wi her family. Immanuel Kirk, built 1904, serves the day a Lutheran congregation wi services in Inglis an Ebreu. Andromeda rock is the rock tae which bonnie Andromeda wis chained in Greek mythology. The Zodiac alleys are a maze o restored alleys leadin tae the harbor. Jaffa Hill is a center for airchaeological fynds, includin restored Egyptian gates, aboot 3,500 years auld. The Libian Synagogue'(Beit Zunana) wis a synagogue built bi a Jewish landlaird, Zunana, in the 18t century. It wis turned intae a hotel an then a soap factory, an reopened as a synagogue for Libian Jewish immigrants after 1948. In 1995, it became a museum. Jaffa Lichthoose is an inactive lichthoose locatit in the auld port.

Jaffa Museum[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Jaffa Museum is locatit in an 18t century Ottoman biggin constructit on the remains o a Crusader fortress. In 1811, Abu Nabout turned it intae his seat o govrenment. In the late 19t century, the govrenmental muivit tae the "New Saraya," an the biggin wis sauld tae a walthy Greek-Orthodox family who established a soap factory there. Syne the 1960s, it haes hoosed an airchaeological museum.[10]

Airchaeology[eedit | eedit soorce]

Excavations on Rabbi Pinchas Street in the flea mercat hae revealed walls an water conduits datin tae the Iron Age, Hellenistic period, early Islamic period, Crusader period an Ottoman era. A limestone slab (50 × 50 cm or 20 × 20 in) engraved wi a menorah discovered on Tanchum Street is believed tae be the door o a tomb.[11]

Transportation[eedit | eedit soorce]

Jaffa promenade

Bus[eedit | eedit soorce]

Currently Jaffa is served bi bus anerlie. Dan is the biggest bus company in the aurie. It operates frequent service tae various neighborhuids o Tel Aviv, an an' a' connects Jaffa tae Bat Yam.

Licht rail[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Red Line o the planned Tel Aviv Light Rail will cross Jaffa north tae sooth alang Jerusalem Boulevard.

Jaffa Railway Station[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main article: Jaffa Railway Station

Jaffa Railway Station wis the first railway station in the Middle East, it served as the terminus for the Jaffa–Jerusalem railway. The station wis opened in 1891 an closed in 1948; durin 2005-2009 the station wis restored an convertit tae an entertainment an leisure venue.

Film[eedit | eedit soorce]

Jaffa flea mercat

Clash of the Titans (1981 film) is set in auncient Joppa. The 2009 Oscar-nominatit film Ajami is set in modren Jaffa.

See an aa[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Coordinates: 32°3′N 34°45′E / 32.050°N 34.750°E / 32.050; 34.750