Jacques Cartier (31 December, 1491 - 1 September, 1557) wis a French traider an splorer that is thocht o as ane o the major discoverers o Canadae, or mair speceificlie, the inner eastren region that wad become the foremaist European-settlt pairt o that kintra.
He wis frae San Malo, Fraunce, born in the year 1491 tae a weel-respeckit faimlie o marinars. He bettered his social status in 1520 bi mairryin Catherine des Granches, member o a leading gailley-ainin faimlie. His guid name in Saint-Malo is recognisit bi its monie appearances in baptismal registers as godfaither or witness.
Gey little is kent o Cartier's chairacter or personality but his professional abeilities can be eithly jaloused conseiderin that Cartier led three vaiges o discovery in nae mowes an hithertil unco watters athoot losin a gailey, that he entered intil an depairtit fae fiftie undiscovered herbours athoot sairious mishanter, an that the anerly seefairmen o his that deid wis victims o an epidemic ashore. Tharefor he micht be conseidered ane o the maist conscientious splorers o the time.
Table o contents
Foremaist Vaige 1534
The Keeng o Fraunce, François I, chuist him tae find "certaines îles et pays où l'on dit qu'il se doit trouver grande quantité d'or et autres riches choses" ("certaint inchs an launds whaur it is quo thare are muckle quantities o gowd an ither riches"). In 1534 he setten sail leukin for a western passage tae Asie. He sploret pairts o whit are the nou cried Newfoundland (stairtin on Mey 10 o that year) an the Canadian Maritimes an whaur he learnt o a river forder wast (the St. Lawrence River) that he believed micht be the much raked-for northwest passage.
He landed for the first time at praisent day Gaspé, Quebec whaur he plauntit a cross an claimet the territory for Fraunce. Owre this vaige he teuk Domagaya an Taignoagny, the sons o Huron Heidsman Donnacona, back tae Europe.
Seicont Vaige 1535-1536
Cartier setten sail on a seicont vaige on Mey 19 o the follaein year wi 3 gailey, 110 men, an the twa fremmit lads (who wis returned tae the Heidsman). He sailed upriver for the first time an reached the steid o praisent-day Québec Ceity, hame o the Huron clachan o Stadacona whaur Donnacona wis reunitit wi his twa sons. Cartier left his main gaileys in a herbour naur tae Stadacona an uised his smallest gailey tae conteena upriver tae veesit Hochelaga (Montreal) an arrived on October 2, 1535. Hantle mair impressive than the smaa an fousome clachan o Stadacona, mair nor a thoosand Hurons came tae the edge o the river tae greet the Frenchmen. The site o thair income haes been confidently identified as the beginning o the Sainte-Marie sault, a location whaur the Jacques Cartier Bridge nou stands.
Efter spendin twa days amang the Hurons o Hochelaga, Cartier returned tae Stadacona on October 11. It is no ken preceese whan Cartier decided tae spend the winter o 1535-1536 in Canadae but the decision buist hae been makkit bi his income in Stadacona as it wis bi than owre ahint the haund tae return tae Fraunce. Cartier an his men prepared for winter bi strengthenin thair fort, hainin inglewid an salting down game an fish.
In throu that winter, Cartier compiled a kynd o gazetteer whilk includet several pages on the mainer o the natives, in parteecular thair prattick o wearing anerly leggings an moccasins e'en in the deid o winter.
Frae mid-November 1535 tae mid-Apryle 1536 the French fleet lay frozen solid at the gab o the St. Charles river, ablo the Rock o Quebec. Ice wis owre twa faddom thick in the river an snaw fower feet deep ashore. Tae add tae the discomfort, scurbie broke oot, first amang the Hurons an than amang the French. Bi mid-Februar, Cartier states that "oot o 110 that we wis, no ten wis weel eneuch tae help the ithers, a thing peetifu tae see". Cartier estimates the coont o Hurons deid at 50.
Ane o the natives that survived wis Domagaya hou haed been taen tae Europe bi Cartier the year afore. He visited the French fort for a freendly call, Cartier enquired an learnt o him that a concoction makkit frae a certain tree cawet annedda wad cuir scurbie. Thon remeed probably sauft the expedeetion frae destruction an bi the end o the winter, 85 Frenchmen wis alive.
Ready tae sail back tae France in early Mey 1536, Cartier decided tae kidnap Donnacona so that he micht personally spin the tale o a country further north, cawet Saguenay, that wis quoet tae be full o gowd, rubies an ither treisurs. Efter a arduous Vaige down the St. Lawrence river an a three weeks Atlantic crossing, Cartier an his men arrived in Saint-Malo on July 15 1536.
Thats hou the secoint an maist profitable o Cartier's vaiges endet, lasting fowerteen months. Haein already located the entrance, he nou opened up the greatest watterwey fae penetrating North America. He haed makkit an mensefu estimate o the resources o Canadae, baith naitral an human, mauger considerable exaggeration on the meeneral side. Whilst some o his actions wi respect tae the natives wis dishonorable, he did his best tae staiblish friendship wi the Huron up an doun the Great River, an indispensable preliminary tae French Hame.
Thrid Vaige 1541-1542
On Mey 23, 1541 Cartier depairtit Saunt-Malo on his thrid vaige wi five gaileys. This time, ony thoughts o findin a passage tae the Orient wis forgotten an the goal wis tae find the Kinrick o Saguenay an its riches an an wa tae establish a permanent Hame alenth the Saunt Lawrence River.
Anchoring at Stadacona on Augist 23 1541, Cartier met the Hurons but found thair "shaw o joy" an thair nummers worrisome an decided no tae big his Hame thare. Sailing nine mile upriver tae a spot he haed previously observed, he decided tae settle on the site o praisent day Cap-Rouge. The convicts an ither colonists were launded, the cattle whilk haed survived three months aboard gailey wis turnt lowse, earth brucken fae a kitchen gairden an seeds o kail, turmit an lettuce wis plauntit. A fortified Hame wis sicwice shapit whilk wis named Charlesbourg-Ryal. Another fort wis also built on the falaise owerleukin the hame fas added protection.
The men also begoud collectin cou-leddy-stane creestal ("diamonds") an airn pyrites ("gowd"). Twa o the gaileys wis dispatched hame wi some meenerals on September 2.
Haein set tasks for awbodie, Cartier left wi the longboats for a reconnaissance o the Saguenay on September 7. Haein reached Hochelaga, bad weather an the numerous rapids prevented him tae conteena up tae the Ottawa river.
Returnin tae Charlesbourg-Royal, Cartier finds the situation uncannie. The Hurons no longer makkit friendly veesits or peddled fish an game, but prowled aboot in a sinister manner. No records exists aboot the winter o 1541-1542 an the information maun be gleaned fae the few details provided frae returnin sailors. It seems that the Indians attacked an killed aboot 35 settlers afore the Frenchmen coud retreat ahint the fortifications. Een tho scurbie wis cuiret throu the native remedee, the impression left is o a general meeserie an o Cartier's growin conviction that he haed insufficient manpower baith tae protect his base an tae gae in search o Saguenay. In early June 1542 awbodie boarded the three remainin ships for tae gae hame. Thay arrived back in Europe in October o 1542.
Cartier spent the lave o his life in Saunt-Malo an his naur aboots estate, an deed aged 66 on September 1 1557 frae an epidemic. He deed afore ony permanent European Hames wis makkit in Canadae; that haed tae wait for Samuel de Champlain in 1608.
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