Irbid Govrenorate

Frae Wikipedia
Lowp tae: navigation, rake
Location o Irbid Govrenorate

Irbid or Irbed (Arabic: إربد‎) is ane o the govrenorates o Jordan. It is locatit north o Amman, Jordan's caipital. The caipital o the govrenorate o Irbid is the ceety o Irbid. It haes the seicont lairgest population in Jordan efter Amman Govrenorate, an the heichest population density in the kintra.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety o Um Qais (Gadara)
An Australian excavation team in the auncient Roman ceety o Pella
A Byzantine kirk in Um Qais
A Byzantine site in Ar Ramtha

Irbid wis distinguisht bi the Greek, Roman an Islamic ceevilizations leavin ahint them historical an airchaeological steids. Roman an Greek ceeties such as Arabella (Irbid), Capitolias (Beit–Ras), Dion (Al Hisn) that contains the Roman airtificial hill an small Roman lake (water reservoir), Gadara (Umm Qais), Pella (Tabeqt Fahel) an Abello (Qwailbeh) wur establisht. They wur members o the Decapolis: a pact that consists o the ten Roman ceeties in the aurie. Ghassanids haed establisht their kintra in the north o Jordan coverin Irbid, Golan an Horan plains. It wis described as the maist bonnie Sirian kintras. An aa it haed the Islamic sodgers’ supplies. Christianity spread oot there in the seicont an the third century A.D.

Irbid witnessed the Edomite an Ammonite ceevilizations. Its significance wis reflectit in the Hellenistic period. Wi the conversion wirk o Islam, the Islamic openin airmies achieved an advance. As a result, Sharhabeel Bin Hasnaa made a glorious Islamic victory in 13 A.H (634 A.D.). He opened Irbid, Beit-Ras an Umm Qais. The Islamic leader Abu Obideh Amer Bin Al-Jarrah wis able tae open Pella. In 15 A.H. (636 A.D.) an in the prime o these victories, Khalid Bin Al-Walid managed tae crush oot the Roman airmies in the lang Battle o Yarmouk. Consequently, he managed tae put an end tae the Roman presence in the aurie. In 583 A.H (1187 A.D.) Saladin’s airmies advanced tae Hittin in which the maist ferocious battle in the history o the Crusades teuk place, This battle wis follaed bi recapturin Jerusalem an returnin it back tae the Islamic sovereignty.

Durin the Mamluk period, Irbid played an important role as a stoppin point for the pilgrims’ caravans comin frae Turkey, north o Iraq an sooth o Roushie. It wis an important communication hub and a gateway tae Egyp, Hejaz an Palestine coast, especially durin the time in which Irbid wis linked wi Damascus, which haed a positive effect on the cultural an scientific movement o Irbid, as referred bi historical writins. In addition tae the spread o a number o scientists an Islamic jurisprudence scholars, the Islamic expansion left mony graves o the companions o the prophet Muhammad, mony mosques an Islamic biggins such as Dar Assaraya (the umwhile preeson) which haes been convertit intae a museum, Hibras Mamluk Mosque, Irbid Mamluke Mosque an Saham Umayyed Mosque.

Admeenistrative Depairtments[eedit | eedit soorce]

The kintraside o Irbid Govrenorate

Irbid Govrenorate is named efter its caipital an lairgest ceety. It is dividit intae nine depairtments cried Alweya which is plural o Liwaa. Mony o these depairtments are athin the sphere o influence (an constitute destricts) o metropolitan Irbid.

Depairtment Arabic Name Population (2004) Admeenistrative Center
1 The Caipital Depairtment (Al-Qasabeh) لواء القصبة 375,594 The ceety o Irbid
2 Bani Obaid Depairtment لواء بني عبيد 93,561 Al Hisn
3 Al-Mazar Al-Shamali Depairtment لواء المزار الشمالي 44,166 Al Mazar al Shamali
4 Ar Ramtha Depairtment لواء الرمثا 109,142 Ar Ramtha
5 Bani Kinaneh Depairtment لواء بني كنانة 76,398 Sama Alrusan, the famous ceety o Um Qais belangs admeenistratively tae this depairtment
6 Koura Depairtment لواء الكورة 91,050 Der Abi Saeed
7 Al-Aghwar Al Shamaliyyeh لواء الأغوار الشمالية 85,203 North Shuneh (الشونة الشمالية)
8 Taybeh Depairtment لواء الطيبة 29,318 Taybeh
9 Wasatieh Depairtment لواء الوسطية 24,046 Kufr Asad

Demographics[eedit | eedit soorce]

A dolmen in the auncient veelage o Juhfieh

The Jordan naitional census o 2004 demographic data indicate that Irbid Govrenorate haed a population o 928,292. Estimates put the population slichtly ower ane million for the year 2009. The next Jordan Naitional Census is scheduled tae be held in 2014.

Demographics o Irbid Govrenorate (2004 Census)[1]
Female tae Male ratio 48.9% tae 51.1%
Jordanian citizens tae foreign naitionals 96.6% tae 3.4%
Urban population 707,420
Rural population 220,872
Total population 928,292

Ceeties, Touns, an Veelages[eedit | eedit soorce]

A View frae northren Irbid ower The Sea o Galilee

Irbid, the "Bride o the North," is considered as ane o the maist bonnie Jordanian ceeties. Its population amoonts tae 650,000 an situatit on a plain land, 65 km. tae the north o the caipital, Amman. It is situatit in the northwast o the Hashemite Kinrick o Jordan, surroondit bi fertile agricultural lands frae north, east, wast an sooth. Irbid wis named “The Daisy” efter the daisy flouer, which grows in its plains. Irbid witnessed human settlements 5000 B.C., such as settlements o the Edomites, Ghassanids an Soothren Arab ceevilizations.

The seicont lairgest ceety in Irbid Govrenorate is Ar Ramtha, Um Qais or (Gadara) as it wis cried durin the Byzantine period is the maist popular touristic destination in the Govrenorate. Mony veelages surroond the ceety o Irbid includin: Hartha(حرثا) Kufr-Soum (كفرسوم), Al-Rafeed (الرفيد), Hibras (حبراص), Yubla (يبلا),Al-Taybeh (الطيبة), Habaka (حبكا‎),Kufr-Rahta( كفررحتا ), Al-Mazar Al-Shamali (المزار الشمالي), Bushra or Bishra (بشرى ), Hareema (حريما), Kufrasad, Kufraan(كفرعان), Jumha, Kufryuba, Zahar, Qum, Sammou', Izmal, Kufrelma, Soum(سوم), Saydoor, Samma, Ibser Abu Ali, Assarieh, Aidoon, Al Hisn, Baleela, Kitim, Beit Ras, Dowgarah, En-Nu`aymeh, Habaka, Houfa Al-Westiyyah, Qumaim, Huwwarah, Imrawah, Ramtha, Sal, Samad, Shajara, Turrah, hatim, melka, foauta , Zoubia, Rehaba, Kharja, Dair yousef, Dair abos'eed, Dair yosef, kufor kefia, summer, e'nbeh, Dair Esse'neh (دير السعنة), Mandah, Zabda, as well as the toun o Malka (ملكا).

Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]

There are three Qualified Industrial Zones (QIZ) in Irbid Govrenorate: Prince Hasan Industrial Ceety, Cyber Ceety, an Jordan River Crossing Ceety. The net exports value o Prince Hasan Industrial Ceety reached US$ 274 million in 2001 benefitin frae its status as a Qualified Industrial Zone (QIZ). Clothins, chemicals an electronics constitutit its main exports.[2] Irbid is at the top o the Jordanian agricultural regions especially in the production o citrus, olives, wheat an bee honey.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Jordan National Census of 2004 Table 3-1
  2. Industry in Irbid (in Arabic)

Coordinates: 32°32′44″N 35°51′26″E / 32.54556°N 35.85722°E / 32.54556; 35.85722