Ionization

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Ionization (or ionisation) is the process bi which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge bi gainin or losin electrons. Ionization, eften, results frae the interaction o an atom or a molecule wi an ionizin pairticle, includin charged pairticles wi sufficient energies an energetic photons. A rare case o ionization in the absence o an freemit pairticle is the internal conversion process, through which an excitit nucleolus transfers its energy tae ane o the inner-shell electrons an ejects it wi heich kinetic energy.